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Geomagnetic Storms

Geomagnetic storm is a perturbation of the geomagnetic field of high intensity, embracing simultaneously the whole Earth, lasting from several hours to several days, caused by the arrival in the neighborhood of the Earth of disturbed solar wind streams and their interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Geomagnetic storms are a manifestation of the amplification of the Earth's ring current, constantly existing in the area of radiation belts of the Earth.

It is customary to distinguish magnetic storms with a sudden commencement and a storm with gradual commencement.
In the case of Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC, SC) against the background of the smooth progress of all elements suddenly there is a jump, which is simultaneously occurring within one to two minutes on all world stations. Especially sharply this jump manifests itself in the magnitude of the horizontal component, which suddenly increased by tens of gammas.
A magnetic storm does not always develop after the appearance of such a jump. In such cases, a sudden commencement is called a Sudden Impulse(SI).

In the case of a gradual beginning of a storm , perturbations arise as a gradual increase in the amplitude of all elements, while the initial moment, with the accuracy with which it is established for storms with a sudden commencement, can not be determined. In this case, the moments of the beginning of the storm, determined at different stations, can stand apart from each other for an hour or more.

Storms by intensity (magnitude of amplitude) are usually divided into weak, moderate and large.
The magnitude of the geomagnetic storm is usually described by Dst and Kp indices.
The catalogs of magnetic storms contain information about the time of storms occurrence, their duration and intensity.

Catalogues of Geomagnetic Storms

1.  Summary catalogue of magnetic storms (1938 - 1948).
        Guide to the variable magnetic field of the USSR. Edited by V.I. Afanasyeva.
        Research Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism. Hydrometeorological Publishing House,
        Leningrad, 1954. P. 3-8, 188-267.

2.   Afanasyeva V.I., Bychkova A.K.
        Summary catalogue of magnetic storms for 1949 - 1958.

        Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
        Moscow, 1979.

3.   Afanasyeva V.I.
        Catalogue of magnetic storm families for the period of 1957 - 1964.

        Preprint.
        Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
        Moscow, 1968.

4.   Afanasyeva V.I., Bychkova A.K.
        Catalogue of geomagnetic storm families for the period of 1965 - 1975.
        and statistical regularities of geomagnetic activity.

        Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
        Moscow, 1977.

5.  Catalogue of magnetic storms.
        Observatory Slutsk (1878-1940),   Observatory Verkhnya Dubrava (1938-1948),   Observatory Moscow (1950-2010).

        Editor Kh.D. Kanonidi.
        Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences.
        Troitsk, 2012.

6.   Mishin V.M., Naidenova N.Ya., Platonov M.L.,S Shchukina T.B.
        Magnetic Storms from Observations in Irkutsk in 1908 - 1959.

        Catalogue of magnetic storms according to the Irkutsk Magnetic Observatory (Zuy) for 1908 - 1959.
        Siberian Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation,
        Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
        Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1963.


7.   Afanas'eva V.I., Ayuushzhav G., Chimiddorzh G., Shevnin A.D.
        Catalog of magnetic storms in Ulan-Bator Observatory for 1966 - 1985.

        Appendix to the book "Alternating magnetic field on the territory of the Mongolian People's Republic".
        Ed. Lugovenko V. N.
        Moscow, Nauka, 1988. pp. 86-179.

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