Cosmic rays - streams of fast charged particles - protons, electrons, nuclei of various chemical elements,
moving with high energies in outer space at a speed of more than 100,000 km/s.
By nature, cosmic rays are divided into galactic and solar.
Galactic cosmic rays – the cosmic particles that come to the Earth from our galaxy.
The main source of them are the explosions of supernovae.
Solar cosmic rays – the cosmic particles generated by the Sun due to solar flares.
Metagalactic cosmic rays are also considerd - cosmic particles that originated outside our
galaxy. Their contribution to the total flux of cosmic rays is small.
The flux of galactic cosmic rays bombarding the Earth is approximately isotropic and constant in time and amounts to
~1 cm-2·s-1 (before entering the Earth's atmosphere). The energy density of galactic
cosmic rays is ~1 eV/cm3.
The energy range is 106 - 1021 eV.
The flux of solar cosmic rays during solar flares can reach ~106 cm-2·s-1.
The energy range is 105 - 1011 eV (from several keV to several GeV).
The World Data Center on Solar-Terrestrial Physics has
an extensive archive of cosmic ray data,
obtained by the Worldwide Network of Neutron Monitors (NM) and Muon Telescopes (MT), and about Ground Level Enhancements.
Ground Level Enhancements Data (GLE)
Data of Neutron Monitors
Data of Muon Telescopes
Data on Cosmic Rays off-line
Map of the placement of neutron monitors and muon telescopes