to the International Association of Meteorology

and Atmospheric Sciences

of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics


1995 - 1998





The present report of the Section of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (SMAS) of the National Geophysical Committee of the Russian Federation comprises brief information on atmospheric research in 1995-1999 in Russia. Some aspects of this research are presented in this issue including cloud physics, climate, dynamic meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, middle atmosphere, atmospheric radiation and atmospheric electricity.

The publication of the National Report was accomplished owing to the partial financial support granted by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No 990578073)

Editors: Professor A.A. Chernikov

Dr A. A. Krivolutsky



  • Cloud physics and weather modification (by S.M. Shmeter and N.O. Plaude)

  • Climate modeling and diagnosis of climatic variations (by I.I. Mokhov)

  • Dynamic meteorology (by V.P. Dymnikov and M. Kurgansky)

  • Atmospheric chemistry (by I.K. Larin)

  • Atmospheric ozone (by A.A. Chernikov)

  • Middle atmosphere meteorology (by A.A. Krivolutsky)

  • Atmospheric radiation (by M.V. Kabanov, E.I. Nezval)

  • Atmospheric Electricity (by Ya. M. Shvarts, V.N. Morozov)



    Professor S.M. Shmeter and Dr N.O. Plaude, Candidate of Physics and Mathematics

    Members of the Commission on Cloud Physics

    In 1995 - 1998 research was intensely developed on the realization of active practical clouds modification both to increase and decrease precipitation in the interests of national economy. Seeding clouds with agents was carried out with the use of aircraft laboratories. To provide hail suppression, rockets launched from the ground with agents in their nose cones were made use of. Laboratory and numerical experiments on clouds and fogs physics were continued though less intensely than in the previous years. The amount of in situ research was considerably less than before 1995.


    Condensation nuclei and ice nuclei

    The results of surface and aircraft measurements of ice nuclei concentrations conducted in different areas of the former Soviet Union in 1977 - 1995 were summarized in [1]. Ice nuclei concentrations were compared in the industrial area of the Moscow Region, the agricultural area of Moldova and in the basin of Baikal Lake. It was shown in [2] that pollution with industrial aerosols causes an increase of ice nuclei in the atmosphere. From data of simultaneous many-month measurements of ice nuclei and atmospheric aerosol particle size range, the relation was estimated in [3] of ice nuclei concentration and the content of particles of various size in the atmosphere. Factors influencing the results of ice nuclei measurements with the use of cloud chambers were studied; the degree of similarity of conditions in chambers and natural conditions was estimated in [4]. The comparability was estimated of data obtained by measuring ice nuclei concentrations with cloud chambers and by filter technique [5].

    Values of cloud particles concentrations in ice-containing clouds were estimated from aircraft meteorological laboratory measurements and the problem was discussed of the nature of aerosol nuclei on which those are formed [6, 7].

    Microphysics of clouds, fogs, and precipitation

    The results of air-borne research of phase and disperse structure of clouds of different types were summarized and analyzed in [8 - 10]. Available data on atmospheric aerosols physics were correlated in [11]. The relation was studied of water content and optical parameters of major forms of stratiform clouds, microstructure of cloudiness, and thermal stratification of the atmosphere [12].

    Laboratory research was conducted into the influence of electric charges and the degree of air ionization on the freezing temperature of fogs and clouds particles as well as on the form of ice crystals therewith forming [13, 14].

    Full-scale research of clouds and cloud systems

    On the basis of the comparison of data on cloudiness and synoptic situation the dependence was verified of the type of cloud fields and specifically the diurnal and seasonal variations of their parameters from large-scale atmospheric processes [15]. With the use of data of aircraft sounding of the atmosphere the differences between data on the number of clouds obtained by satellites and by visual observations from the ground were estimated [16].

    The results of theoretical and experimental research of aircraft condensation trails were summarized. Data were verified on the relation between the probability characteristics of trail formation and the season of the year, latitude and temperature [17].

    Characteristics of mesoturbulence in the zone of convective cloudiness were determined from full-scale research data in mesoaccumulation of convective clouds above the northwestern area of the Pacific [18].

    The complex of aircraft microphysical apparatus which had been developed before by the Central Aerological Observatory was elaborated [19, 20].

    The spatial structure, microphysical and thermal dynamic characteristics of convective clouds above Cuba were investigated with the use of aircraft laboratories. The features of precipitation forming processes going on in them were studied [21, 22]. The contribution of meteorological processes of various scale in the precipitation amount was estimated from data on clouds and precipitation in the land along the Volga (Povolzh'e). Data on the mesostructure of cloud fields and precipitation in the warm season of the year were summarized in [24].

    Theoretical research and numerical modeling of clouds and precipitation

    The technique of parametrization of ice particles generation processes in numerical models of clouds was elaborated [25]. The values of meteoelements pulsations dispersions in the cloudy atmosphere were established [25]. Based on these values, numerical modeling of clouds St, Ns, Cu cong [26] was carried out. Nonstationary numerical model was constructed of convective cloud for the case of aerosol particles with a diameter of D > 2mm. This model was applied to estimate the intensity of moister washout of aerosols with various intensity of precipitation [27, 28].

    A more elaborate theory of aircraft condensation trails formation was worked out [29]. On the basis of nonstandard two-dimensional model of convective cloud the consequences were studied of seeding its supercooled droplet area with an ice-forming aerosol [30].

    The process of cellular structures formation in fogs and their influence on air pollution was studied [31].

    Nonhydrostatic numerical model describing the meteoelements fields transformation in the boundary layer of the atmosphere which accompanies the movements of cumulus and the data of model calculations were analyzed [32].


    Agents and means

    The results of research in ice-forming activity of submicron aerosols AgI were summarized; monotonous dependence of AgI activity from particles size was demonstrated in [33]. Ice-forming capacity of aerosol particles composed of AgI - CuI - NH4I mixture was investigated and the role of CuI component was estimated [34]. The influence of some industrial gases on ice-forming activity of AgI aerosols obtained with the use of pyrotechnic compositions was studied [35]. From the results of stratus clouds modification it was shown that ice-forming aerosols have advantages over cooling agents which lie in a more complete realization of their ice-forming capacity [36]. Conditions of efficient use of liquid nitrogen were investigated with the use of laboratory model of jet blower [37]. Crystallizing capacity of porous granules soaked with liquid nitrogen was studied. Its low efficiency was discussed in [38].

    Precipitation increase

    Researches in enhancing precipitation from convective tropical clouds that were conducted in Cuba I. in 1986 - 1990 were summarized. It was demonstrated that in the altitude range of 6.5 - 8.0 km (with cloud upper boundary temperatures of -10 - -20° C) seeding of clouds resulted in almost double increase in precipitation [39]. The influence of technological and weather conditions of seeding on the efficiency was studied; the combination was determined of factors and parameters influencing the intensity of cloud and precipitation artificial formation processes [40]. The results of modification of clouds of various forms that took place in Moscow on May 9, 1995, to improve the weather were analyzed in [41]. Experimental and operational work to enhance precipitation was conducted in Yakutia in 1995 - 1997. The obtained numerical estimations testify to the effect that the efficiency of operations in high latitudinal cloud systems is close to the efficiency in other geographical regions [42]. From data obtained in Moldavia and Siria the variations of precipitation structure were analyzed that were noted with convective and stratiform clouds modification to cause precipitation [43].

    Hail Suppression

    The results of the Russian rocket technique application in Argentina to control hail were summarized in [44, 45]. The efficiency of hail control in areas with different intensity of hail processes was estimated in [47]. A comparative study was conducted of the evolution of hail clouds under the effects of rockets and missiles and clouds in the natural conditions of the Northern Caucasus [46]. Features of hailstones falling down in those both cases were considered in [48].

    With the use of multiwave radar system, radio techniques, and lightning recorders the relation between microphysical and electrical characteristics of thunderstorm clouds were discussed in [49].

    From data obtained by antihail rockets in different areas of CIS a possible air, water and soil pollution with weather modification products was estimated in the areas that are protected from hails [50].

    From the results of 14-year direct measurements of the amount of agents in a test site in Moldova, maximal seasonal norms of seeding were established that do not result in measurable environmental pollution [51].

    Dispersion of clouds and fogs

    The results of laboratory and field research related to affecting supercooled fogs with liquid nitrogen were summarized. During four winters experiments were carried out on dispersing fogs in the airports of Alma-Ata and Sheremet'evo [52]. In the winter of 1996 - 1998 successful experiments on the dispersion of supercooled fogs with the use of liquid nitrogen were carried out on the highway Venice - Trieste [53]. In 1996 work was started on dispersion of supercooled fogs with nitrogen technique application in the airport of Parma (Italy) [54]. In cloud chamber laboratories the possibility of improving visibility in warm fogs was estimated with the use of elecrtostatic method [55]. The procedure was proposed of increasing the efficiency of thermal systems used for dispersion of warm fogs [56].

    Monitoring of results and assessment of weather modification efficiency

    The efficiency of affecting singular convective clouds and cloud clusters in different geological regions was estimated [57]. Results of applying various statistical criteria were compared to check the hypothesis of equal probabilities of two events against an alternative hypothesis. It is recommended that only a criteria that has no displacement of asymptotic power function be applied to assess the efficiency of weather modification which allows us to rule out ambiguity in the modification assessment [58].


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    2. Vychuzhanina M.V., Plaude N.O. Ice-forming properties of anthropogenic contaminated atmospheric aerosol. Optika atmosfery i okeana, 1996, No 6, pp. 858 - 860
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    4. Vychuzhanina M.V., Miroshnichenko V.I., Plaude N.O. The Cloud chamber technique in the research of atmospheric aerosols ice-forming characteristics. Optika atmosfery i okeana, 1997, V 10, No 6, pp. 1 -6
    5. Plaude N.O., Vychuzhanina M.V., Potapov E.I. Intercomparing results of ice nuclei concentration measurements carried out simultaneously using cloud chamber and filter method. Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Nucl. and Atm. Aerosols. 1996, Helsinki, 377 - 380.
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    1. Klepikov I.N., Pokrovskaya I.V., Sharkov E.A. Doppler studies of spatial characteristics of mesoscale convective turbulence in the tropical atmosphere. Meteorologia i gidrologia, 1995, No 6, pp. 23 - 32
    1. Nevzorov A.N. CAO aircraft instrumentation for cloud physics. 12th Int. Conf. On Clouds and Precipitations, Zurich, Switzerland, 1996, V 1, 371 - 374
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    2. Beliaev V.P., Zimin B.I., Koloskov B.P., Petrov I.I., Seregin Yu. A., Chernikov A.A. Processes of rainfall formation in tropical convective clouds and estimation of their suitability for weather modification. Trudy CAO, 1996, V 181, pp. 114 - 125
    1. Belyaev V.P., Valdes M., Zimin B.I., Koloskov B.P., Martines D., Petrov V.V. Characteristics of tropical convective clouds by data of researches in Cuba. Trudy CAO, 1996, V 181, pp. 18 - 37
    1. Zimin B.I., Tsoi O.B. The structure of summer precipitation in the land along the Volga from cloud formations of different scale. Trudy CAO, 1996, V 181, pp. 114 - 125
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    1. Novoselov L.N., Stepanov A.S. Dispersions of meteorological models and representativity of average characteristics in turbulent cloud medium. Meteorologia i gidrologia, 1995, No 4, pp. 1 -52.
    1. Veremei N.E. The influence of suspended roughly dispersed aerosol particles on the convective flow in the troposphere. Vestnik SPbGU, ser. 4, Fizika i Khimia, 1998, V. 1, No 11, pp. 18 -24
    1. Veremei N.E., Dovgaliuk Yu. A., Ivlev L.S. The elaboration of mycrophysical description method and the algorithm of their calculation in the numerical nonstationary model of convective cloud containing solid roughly dispersed aerosols. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols. Proc. Int. Conf. 29.9 - 4.10.1997, SPb, 1998, pp. 319 - 328
    1. Mazin I.P., Kheismefild A. The theory of condensation trails formation after aircraft. Meteorologia i Gidrologia, 1998, No 9, pp. 5 - 14
    1. Khvorostianov V.i., Khain A.P., Cherkasova N.I., Kogteva E.A. Two-dimensional model of dynamic seeding of convective cloudiness. Meteorologia i gidrologia, 1995, No 9, pp. 68 - 84
    1. Kuzenkov A.F., Sumina N.A. A cellular mechanism responsible for hazardous air pollution in fog. Proc. 2nd European and African Conf. On Wind Engineering, 1997, Genova, Italy, June 22 - 26, pp. 445 - 450
    1. Beschastnov S.P. Modelling of the influence of cumulus on the structure of atmospheric boudary layer. Meteorologia i gidrologia, 1996, No 6, p. 44 - 52
    1. Aksenov M. Ya., Plaude N.O., Sosnikova E.V. Ice-forming activity of silver iodide submicron aerosols. Izv. RAN. Fizika atmosfery i okeana, 1996, V 32, No 1, pp. 56 - 61.
    1. Plaude N.O., Sosnikova E.V. Studies of ice-forming aerosols AgI-CuI-NH4I. Trudy CAO, 1996, V 181, pp. 78 - 834
    1. Parshutkina I.P., Churilova I.L., Plaude N.O., Grishina N.P. Research into the influence of some industrial gases on the efficiency of standard ice-forming pyrocomposition with silver iodide. Trudy CAO, 1996, V 181, pp. 69 - 77
    1. Bazzaev T.V., Plaude N.O. On the difference in the behavior of cooling agents and ice-forming aerosols in clouds. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod. WMO Report No 31, Thailand, Feb. 1999, V 11, pp. 303 - 305
    1. Zemskov A.N., Krasnovskaya L.I., Roshchina L.M., Savina N.A., Shevaldina T.I. Laboratory rsearch of crystallizing efficiency of jet blows with liquid nitrogen. Trudy CAO, 1996, V 181, pp. 84 - 95
    1. Bankova N.Yu., Zemskov A.N., Krasnovskaya L.I., Roshchina L. M., Savina N.A., Shevaldina T.I. Laboratory research of crystallyzing efficiency of porous granules soaked with liquid nitrogen. Trudy CAO, 1996, V 181, pp. 99 - 105
    1. Berioulev G.P., Beliaev V.P., Danelian B.G., Koloskov B.P., Chernikov A.A. Main results of the experiments on enhancing rainfall from convective clouds in Cuba. Trudy CAO, 1996, V 181, pp. 52 - 60
    1. Belyaev V.P., Danelian B.G., Zimin B.I., Koloskov B.P., Seregin Yu.A. The influence of technological and weather conditions of experiments on the efficiency of weather modification. Trudy CAO, 1996, V 181, pp. 38 - 51
    1. Beliaev V.P., Berioulev G.P., Vlasiuk M.P., Danelian B.G., Koloskov B.P., Korneev V.P., Melnichuk Yu.V., Chernikov A.A. The experience of weather modification above Moscow on May 9, 1995. Meteorologia i gidrologia, No 5, 1996, pp. 71 - 82
    1. Berioulev G.P., Koloskov B.P., Pozdeev V.N., Vlasiuk M.P., Korneev V.P., Fedorov O.K., Artemiev G.M., Maksimov V.M., Desyatkin R.V. The precipitation enhancement eperiment in Yakutia (Russia) 1995 - 1997 field seasons. VII WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea.Mod. 17 - 22 Feb. 1999, Thailand, 101 - 104
    1. Zimin B.I. Precipitation structure changes caused by artificial modification of cumulus and stratus clouds. VII WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod. 17 - 22 Feb., 1999, Thailand, 191 - 192.
    1. Abshaev M.T., Malkarova A.M. Results of hail suppression project in Argentina. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod., WMO Rep. No 31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb. 1999, 391 - 394
    1. Makitov V., Stasenko V. An automated rocket hail suppression system. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod., WMO Rep. No 31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb. 1999, 403 - 406
    1. Abshaev M.T. Efficiency of Russian hail suppression technology in different regions of the world. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod., WMO Rep. No 31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb. 1999, pp. 411 - 414
    1. Abshaev M.T. Evolution of seeded and non-seeded hailstorms. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod., WMO Rep. No31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb. 1999, 407 - 410
    1. Tlisov M.I., Khruchunaev B.M. The estimation of hail suppression effect on the value of physical characteristics of hail. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod., WMO Rep., No 31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb. 1999, 423 - 426.
    1. Abshaev M.T. Estimation of ecological purity of the Russian hail-suppression technology. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod., WMO Rep. No 31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb. 1999, 553 - 556
    1. Galperin S., Karavaev D., Stasenko V., Shchukin G., Active-passive radar system for controle of thunderstorm modification. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod., WMO Rep. No 31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb. 1999, 581 - 584
    1. Potapov Ye. I., Plaude N.O., Zotov Ye.I. Study of environmental pollution in a hail-protected area. J. Appl. Meteorol., 1996, V 35, No 9, 1542 - 1545
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    1. Vlasiuk M.P., Khaikine M.N., Koloskov B.P., Mukiy N.G. Some results of intended fog dispersion at the motorway Venice - Trieste (Italy). 7th WMO Sci.Conf. on Wea. Mod., WMO Report No 31, Thailand, 17-22, Feb. 1999, V 11, pp. 323 - 326
    1. Chernikov A.A., Bankova N. Yu., Krasnovskaya L.L., Khizhyk A.N., Sergeev B.N. Using Russian supercooled fog disprersal technology at airports of Northern Italy. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod. Report N31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb., 1999, V 11, 327 - 330
    1. Chernikov A.A., Khaikine M.N. The use of electrical precipitators to clear warm fog. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod., WMO Report N31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb., 1999, V 11, pp. 335 - 338
    1. Chernikov A.A. On the use of heat pumps and refrigerators to disperse fog. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Wea. Mod., WMO Report N31, Thailand, 17 - 22 Feb., 1999, V 11, pp. 339 - 342
    1. Berioulev G.P., Beliaev V.P., Danelian B.G., Zimin B.I., Kloskov B.P., Chernikov A.A. The assessment of modification efficience and of the enhanced rainfall amount from convective clouds. Meteorologia i gidrologia, No 4, 1995, pp. 66 - 86
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    I.I. Mokhov. (A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS, Moscow)

    One of the most important climatic studies performed in the XX century concerns the analysis of climate variations during last about 400 000 years using the ice core data from the Russian Vostok station in Antarctica. Kotlyakov et al. (1997) presented first information about four climate cycles of the hundred thousands year period from these observations.

    The results of analysis of different observations during last 3-5 decades show that the stratosphere and mesosphere may be regions with the strongest signals of global change (Golitsyn et al., 1996; Givishvili et al., 1996; Lysenko et al., 1997a,b). The analysis of rocket temperature soundings up to 75 km since mid - 1960s at polar, temperate and tropical latitudes was carried out by Golitsyn et al. (1996). All records show significant cooling which of the order of a few degrees K at 30-40 km, 10 K at 50 km and 20 K at 60-70 km. In the mesosphere the temperature trends are estimated from hydroxyl rotational temperature records which start in 1957 at Zvenigorod (55.7N) and Abastumani (41.8N). These are related to the mesopause at 87 km and also display a cooling of about 30 K during the time in winters. In summers this temperature does not exhibit any trends variing around 155 K. The cooling is qualitatively consistent with increasing concentration of greenhouse gases but may also reflect the changing chemistry of stratosphere and mesosphere, which is seen inincreasing emission intensities of hydroxil during the last decades.

    Observed climate changes during last decades in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, Eurasia and especially in Russia, are analyzed in many publications, particularly in (Baikova, 1998; Budyko et al., 1998; Efimova et al., 1996; Efimova and Strokina, 1998; Gruza and Rankova, 1999; Gruza et al., 1999a,b; Morozova and Myasnikov, 1997). The history of landscapes and climate in Northern Eurasia in Tertiary period from paleaodata is discussed by Velichko et al. (1998). According to Efimova and Strokina (1998) the continued climate warming during last two decades is observed in the most of the continental regions of Russia, especially in winter. Rankova and Gruza (1998) studied the changes in surface air temperature (SAT) precipitation and drought indices, and also the percentage of the Russian territory with a certain climatic anomalies. Several indicators based on monthly mean temperature and precipitation station data are proposed in (Rankova and Gruza, 1998; Gruza et al., 1999a) as a characteristics of regional climate changes. Some of these are the components of two aggregated indices of climate change, suggested by Karl et al. (1996): the Climate Extremes Index (CEI) and the Greenhouse Climate Response Index (GCRI). Composite indices CEI-3 and GCRI-3 based on three parameters (air temperature, precipitation and drought indices) are examined, as well as the Climate Anomaly Index (CAI), known in Russia as Bagrov’s coefficient of anomality.

    Temporal variations of the global annual-mean SAT during the period 1854-1990 were studied by Sonechkin et al. (1997) with the use of wavelet analysis. A multiscale analysis of El Nino / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) characteristics was carried out in (Astaf'eva and Sonechkin,1995; Astaf'eva, 1997) also using wavelet analysis. The relationships between SAT and precipitation anomalies over Russia and ENSO events are investigated in (Gruza et al., 1999b) based on observations at 455 meteorological stations during 1901-1995. The correlation and composite analyses are applied. Regions with statistically significant anomalies associated with the ENSO events are treated as a response of surface climate to ENSO extremes. The spatial and temporal specifications of that response are analyzed. Datsenko et al. (1998) analyzed the local climate change during two last centuries from SAT observations in Prague-Klementinum.

    A long-term variations of characteristics of the SAT annual cycle are estimated in (Mirvis et al., 1996; Mirvis et al., 1998; Mokhov and Eliseev, 1997). Mirvis et al. (1998) analyze the continentality indices calculated by data from 75 stations in Eurasia for the period 1891-1990. Mokhov and Eliseev (1997) analyzed tendencies of change of the annual cycle range for temperature of different latitudinal belts and layers in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Temperature trends in the Arctic lower stratosphere from radiosonde data for last four decades were analyzed by Koshelkov and Zakharov (1998). The trends are negative and statistically significant by annual-mean data and for summer and autumn seasons, while they are not statistically significant for winter and spring seasons.

    Spectral analysis of the observed data (Mokhov et al., 1997) displays that the temperature quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) as a whole weakens (and even disappears) in the extratropical troposphere and intensifies in the stratosphere, especially in the polar regions under global warming. The QBO amplitudes show a general correlation with the annual cycle range of local temperatures (Mokhov et al., 1997; Mokhov and Eliseev, 1997). Tendencies of change of characteristics of the zonal wind and temperature quasi-biennial oscillations in the equatorial lower stratosphere diagnozed in (Mokhov and Eliseev, 1998) with the analysis of phase portraits (see also (Gruzdev and Sitnov, 1997; Sitnov, 1996)). The decrease of the temperature QBO intensity in the extratropical troposphere is simulated by the IAP RAS global climate model under doubling of the atmospheric CO2 content (Eliseev et al., 1997). The detailed description of this model with the analysis of present-day climate simulations was published in (Petoukhov et al., 1998).

    Assessments and spatial patterns of the climate response to the changes in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases are presented in (Gruza and Rankova, 1999). An analysis of climate responses is made by using decadal mean SAT over the Russian territory as a whole and within Russian latititudinal belt 50-55N. The comparison between observed and modelled climate responses was made.

    Problem of pedictability of climatic changes is discussed by Dymnikov (1998) in relation to the low-frequency variability of atmospheric circulation. Dymnikov and Filatov (1998) analyzed some mathematical problems of climate system behaviour near attractors. The circulation regimes over the North Atlantic similar to well known regimes of zonal flow and blocking situation are considered. The using of adiabatic invariants, particularly potential vorticity and entropy, in climate studies and for verification of general circulation models is discussed in (Pisnitchenko and Kurgansky, 1996).

    Relationships between SST in equatorial Pacific and circulation characteristics in the atmospheric centers of action are analyzed in (Gushchina and Petrosyants, 1998; Petrosyants and Gushchina, 1998) using the NCEP/NCAR (reanalysis) data for the period 1982-1994.

    Gruza and Rankova (1996a) analyzed the 100-year time series of annual frequency and duration of circulation patterns using classifications by Dzerdzeevskiy, and Vangengeim-Girs. Estimates of intrasecular variability of these characteristics are investigated in comparison with those ones for characteristics of the Northern Hemisphere temperature regime. The problem of computational classification of circulation patterns at the 500 hPa level is considered by Gruza and Rankova, (1996b) (see also Zolotokrylin and Ezau, 1998). Examples of classification for the Atlantic-Eurasian sector, similar in many respects to synoptic classifications, were obtained.

    Variability of zonal tropospheric and stratospheric circulation in midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are studied in (Perevedentsev et al., 1997; Perevedentsev et al., 1998) using daily Kats indices at 500, 300, 100, 30 and 10 hPa for the period 1976-1990. Vereshchagin et al. (1995) were analyzed the connection of intensity of westerly flow in the middle troposphere with meridional gradients of SST. Variations of the stratospheric zonal wind and angular momentum are analyzed in (Jadin, 1995, 1997) using the NMC data for 1979-1992. Effects of the 1982-1983 El Nino event are discussed.

    The remarkable climate deviations are associated with blocking situations in the atmosphere. Meshcherskaya and Blazhevich (1997) studied the relationship between the drought and excessive moisture indices in the European and Asian parts of the Former Soviet Union for 1891-1995. The blocking characteristics and their tendencies of change in the Northern Hemisphere under the climate variations are studied in (Mokhov et al., 1995; Lupo et al., 1997; Mokhov and Petukhov, 1997). Lupo et al. (1997) analyzed results of GCM simulations with the doubling CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. particularly, model results show, that, in general, blockings were more persistent and weaker, but of similar size in the increased CO2 atmosphere. The conclusion about generally more persistent blockings is supported in (Mokhov and Petukhov, 1997) on the basis of analysis of observations and simple model considerations.

    Variability of the extratropical cyclonic activity at 500 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere is analyzed by Bardin (1995). An abrupt increase in the cyclone frequency and intensity in the middle troposphere is discussed. Long-term interannual variations of the intramonthly standard deviations of surface meteorological characteristics in the North Atlantic midlatitudes analyzed by Gulev (1997) using the North Atlantic Ocean Weather Stations dataset. Intramonthly standard deviations for most of the characteristics tended to decrease during the analyzed period (1946-1989), Long-term changes of winter synoptic activity in the North Atlantic diagnozed also by Zveryaev (1998).

    Dymnikov and Volodin (1998) analyze the climate model sensitivity to small external forcing. The sensitivity criterium based on statistical properties of trajectories of climatic system is proposed

    Karol et al. (1995) used an one-dimensional radiative-photochemical model to reconstruct the annual global mean vertical distributions of trace gas concentrations for four periods: the contemporary period of 1985, the preindustrial period of 1850, the last glacial period of 18 ka B.P., and the interglacial period before the latter of 120-130 ka B.P. This study was continued in (Karol et al., 1997) with development of dynamical module. It was noted that there could be substantial deviations of ozone content during glacial periods in polar regions in separate seasons due to changes of atmospheric circulation.

    According to numerical experiments with the INM GCM performed by Volodin and Galin (1998) the anomalies of winter circulation during 1989-1994 could be caused by the observed decrease of ozone content in the lower stratosphere.

    Relative impacts of emissions of different greenhouse gases and their combinations on the tropospheric and stratospheric ozone were estimated by Kiselev and Frolkis (1995) using a one-dimensional radiative-photochemical model with the IPCC scenario for the period 1985-2050. Sensitivity of vertical ozone distribution to different lapse rate parameterizations was analyzed also.

    Uncertainties in estimating contribution of different greenhouse gases emission to global warming is discussed in (Antonovskii et al., 1998). The essential problem is associated with the assessment of the carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean (Lapshin et al., 1998).

    Problems of aerosol effects on climate are discussed in (Asaturov, 1998a,b; Kondratyev, 1998; Rozanov et al., 1998). Requirements to satellite aerosol remote sensing data have been formulated by Kondratyev (1998) on the basis of the brief analysis of an aerosol impact on climate. Rozanov et al. (1998) analyze the effect of aerosol particles on the surface inversion layer characteristics in the Arctic using a 1.5-dimensional radiative-convective model.

    Energy-balance stochastic climate model was used by Mokhov and Semenov (1997) in order to reproduce the bimodal features in intra-seasonal probability density functions (PDF) for SAT from observations. New analytical nonlinear parameterization was proposed for planetary albedo in dependence on temperature. More detailed model was used in (Mokhov et al., 1998) for analysis of possible mechanisms of generation of bi- and polimodal features in PDF's for SAT with diagnostics of changes under global warming.

    Simple stochastic model with interaction between atmospheric and soil moisture was used to reproduce features of spectra of the atmospheric moisture content fluctuations at periods from a month to a few years (Demchenko, 1997).

    The Caspian Sea level as a problem of diagnosis and prognosis of the regional climate change is considered by Golitsyn (1995). A comparison of AMIP simulations with 21 atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) with observations in the annual cycle and interannual variability was carried out by Meleshko et al. (1998) for the Caspian Sea basin. This region is characterized by very large variations of hydrological cycle characteristics and Caspian Sea level in the XX century. In (Arpe et al., 1999) an evidence of a link between the El Nino/Southern Oscillation phenomenon and changes of the Caspian Sea level is presented. The link is also found to be dominating in numerical experiments with the ECHAM4 atmospheric GCM in the 20th century climate simulation. Future changes of Volga river discharge (VRD) and precipitation over Volga basin in 21th century are estimated using a numerical experiment with a coupled GCM ECHAM4/OPYC taking into account greenhouse gases increase due to anthropogenic impact. Mean precipitation and river discharge increase is revealed accompanied by a noticable drop (especially for VRD) in the first third of the 21th century (Arpe et al., 1999). Regional climate model in combination with atmospheric GCM was used by Kislov and Surkova (1995, 1997) climate simulations in the Caspian Sea basin, particularly for period of the Holocene. A comparative analysis of long-term variability of the Black and Caspian Sea levels during 1875-1995 period was carried out by Lappo and Reva (1997). It was noted that variations with periods less than 19 years for every sea agree rather well.

    Role of humidity in the dynamics of transient seasons is analyzed by Kurbatkin et al. (1998) using an atmospheric GCM. The atmospheric GCMs ability to reproduce the precipitation and evaporation from observations in polar latitudes is diagnozed in (Walsh et al.,1998) using the results of AMIP simulations. The corresponding ability of atmospheric GCMs to simulate the freshwater budget of polar regions is studied by Kattsov et al. (1998).

    Probably the largest uncertainty of GCMs is related to the cloudiness simulations. Total cloudiness of 29 models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project was compared in (Mokhov and Love, 1995; Weare and Mokhov, 1995) with observational estimates. No specific differences are evident in the physical characteristics of models that are relatively adept at reproducing seasonal and interannual variations and those that perform more poorly. However, there is the general conclusion that models that have more sophisticated physical processes tend to better simulate the cloud observations.

    The atmosphere-ocean interaction in the middle latitudes is studied in (Dymnikov et al., 1995) using atmospheric GCM coupled with oceanic upper layer. This model is used for analysis of winter low-frequency variability of the Atlantic SST and characteristics of atmospheric circulation.

    Modelling of oceanic climate is considered in a number of publications (Dobrolyubov and Kalinichenko,1995; Grigoryan et al., 1998; Yakovlev 1998a,b; Zalesny, 1998). Dobrolyubov and Kalinichenko (1995) used a two-dimensional circulation model with a coupled meridional channels corresponding to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans to investigate the influence of salinity and temperature anomalies in the surface layer in the North Atlantic on the intensity of global circulation of the World Ocean. Negative (positive) anomalies of salinity and temperature result in a weakening (strengthening) of the circulation.

    A coupled ice-ocean model was developed by Polyakov et al. (1998). It was used, in particular, for simulation of seasonal and long-period variability of ice and snow thickness, temperature and salinity in different parts of the Arctic Ocean. A simple thermodynamic model of the sea-ice-ocean system is described in (Alekseev and Ryabchenko, 1996). This model is used for analysis of seasonal variability in the Arctic basin and for estimates of water exchange with the North Atlantic.

    Significant portion of Earth`s land is influenced by permafrost. In (Anisimov and Nelson, 1996, 1997) the maps of permafrost distribution in the Northern Hemisphere were generated using three general circulation models and paleoreconstructions, all scaled to a 2K global warming, in conjunction with a permafrost model. The simulations indicate a 25-44% reduction in the total area occupied by equilibrium permafrost.

    The parameterization scheme of heat and moisture transfer in the soil-vegetation system for use in atmospheric GCMs is presented in (Volodin and Lykosov, 1998a). It was tested by Volodin and Lykosov (1998b) in numerical experiments with GCM of Institute of Numerical Mathematics RAS.

    Estimates by Nagurny (1995) show a 12-14 cm decrease in the effective thickness of sea ice from 1970 to 1992 or about 0.5 cm per year.

    General characteristics of the World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources and global evaluation of the natural ice-snow seasonal cover, glaciers and ice sheets is given by Kotlyakov (1998). Analysis of snow cover observations at 600 stations over eastern Europe and north part of Eurasia was performed by Krenke et al. (1997, 1998) for the 1966-1990 period. In general, La Nina years correspond to positive anomalies of snow cover in the northern part from the Russian Plain to the mountains of north-eastern Siberia. El Nino years correspond to positive anomalies in the southern parts of analyzed regions, especially in the mountains. Parameterization of the snow cover boundary in the climate energy balance models was analyzed by Kislov (1996).

    Results of the biosphere-climate interaction modelling is presented in (Brovkin et al., 1998; Claussen et al., 1998a,b; Ganopolski et al., 1998). A conceptual model has been developed by Brovkin et al. (1998) for the analysis of atmosphere-vegetation interaction in subtropical deserts. By coupling an atmospheric general circulation model asynchronously with an equilibrium vegetation model, manifold equilibrium solutions of the atmosphere-ocean-vegetation system have been explored in (Claussen et al., 1998). It is found that under present-day conditions of the Earth’s orbital parameters and sea-surface temperatures, two stable equilibria of vegetation patterns are possible: one corresponding to present-day sparse vegetation in the Sahel, the second solution yielding savannah which extends far into the south-western part of the Sahara. Simulations by Ganapolski et al. (1998) with sinchronously coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model show that changes in vegetation cover during the mid-Holocene, some 6000 years ago, modify and amplify the climate system response to an enchanced seasonal cycle of solar insolation in the Northern Hemisphere both directly (primarily through the changes in surface albedo) and indirectly (through changes in oceanic temperature, sea-ice cover, and oceanic circulation).


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    Alekseev, G.V., et al., 1998. Long-term variations of ice conditions and atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic Arctic and North Atlantic. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.9, P.87-98.

    Alekseev, G.V., et al., 1998. Heat expansion of Atlantic water in the Arctic basin. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol.,. No.7, P.69-78.

    Anisimov, O.A., and F.E. Nelson, 1996. Permafrost distribution in the Northern Hemisphere under scenarios of climatic change. Global and Planetary Change, V.14, P.59-72.

    Anisimov, O.A., and F.E. Nelson, 1997. Influence of climate change on continental permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.5, P.71-80.

    Antonovskii, M.Ya., et al., 1998. Analysis of uncertainties in estimating contribution of different greenhouse gas emission to global warming. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.8, P.57-66.

    Arpe, K., L. Bengtsson, G.S. Golitsyn, I.I. Mokhov, V.A. Semenov, and P.V. Sporyshev, 1999. Analysis and modelling of hydrological cycle changes in the Caspian Sea basin. Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Acad. Sci., V.366, No.4.

    Asaturov, M.L., 1998. An anthropogenic increase of the stratospheric aerosol layer. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., No.2, 17-23.

    Asaturov, M.L., 1998. An anthropogenic stratospheric aerosol effect on climate. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., No.3, 1-6.

    Astafyeva, I.M., and D.M. Sonechkin, 1995. Multiscale analysis of Southern Oscillation Index. Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Ac. Sci., V.344, No.4, P.539-542.

    Astafyeva, I.M., 1997. Analysis of long-term structure of the Southern Oscillation Index and El Nino effects. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.6, P.788-796.

    Baikova, I.M., 1998. Features of long-term variations of atmospheric transparency coefficient and components of solar radiation in Siberia and the Far East in 1967-1986. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., No.1, 20-25.

    Bardin, M.Yu., 1995. Variability of cyclonicity parameters in the middle troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.11, P.24-37.

    Brovkin, V.A., M. Claussen, V.K. Petoukhov, and A. Ganapolski, 1998. On the stability of the atmosphere-vegetation system in Sahara/Sahel region. J. Geophys. Res., V.103, No.D24, P.31613-31624.

    Budyko, M.I., et al., 1998. A relationship between surface albedo and climate change. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.6, P.1-5.

    Claussen, M., Brovkin, V.A., A. Ganapolski, C. Kubatzki, and V.K. Petoukhov, 1998. Modelling global terrestrial vegetation-climate system interaction. Phil. Transactions Royal Soc., V.353, P.53-63.

    Claussen, M., C. Kubatzki, V.A. Brovkin, A. Ganapolski, P. Hoelzmann, and H.-J. Pachur, 1998. Simulation of an abrupt change Saharian vegetation at the end of the mid-Holocene. Science.

    Datsenko, N.M. et al., 1998. Analysis of climate change for 200 years from air temperature observations in Prague-Klementinum. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.4, P.23-30.

    Demchenko, P.F., 1997. Simple model of long-period variability of atmospheric moisture with reference to its interaction with soil. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.6, P.788-796.

    Dobrolyubov, S.A., and A.N. Kalinichenko, 1995. Modelling of possible oscillations of the intensity of contemporary inter-ocean circulation. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.5, P.65-73.

    Dymnikov, V.P., 1998. Predictability of climatic changes. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.34, No.6.

    Dymnikov, V.P., and A.N. Filatov, 1995. On several problems of mathematical theory of climate. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.31, No.3, P.293.

    Dymnikov, V.P., et al., 1995. Numerical simulation of a coupled circulation of the atmosphere and upper layer of the ocean. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.31, No.3, P.304.

    Dymnikov, V.P., and E.M. Volodin, 1998. On sensitivity of climate models to smal external forcing. Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Acad. Sci., V.359, No.3, 394-396.

    Efimova, N.A., and L.A. Strokina, 1998. Surface air temperature anomaly changes over Russia from 1981 to 1993. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.7, P.69-73.

    Efimova, N.A., et al., 1996. Changes in principal climate variables over the USSR in 1967-1990. . Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.4, P.34-41.

    Eliseev, A.V., K.V. Bezmenov, P.F. Demchenko, I.I. Mokhov, and V.K. Petukhov, 1995. Modelling of diurnal cycle under climate change. Publ. Acad. Finland 6/95, P.272-275.

    Eliseev, A.V., I.I. Mokhov and V.K. Petukhov, 1997. Modelling the quasi-biennial oscillations of atmospheric temperature and the tendencies of its evolution under climatic changes. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.6, P.679-687.

    Ganapolski, A., S. Ramstorf, and V.K. Petoukhov, and M. Claussen, 1998. Simulation of modern and glacial climates with a coupled global model of intermediate complexity. Nature, V.391, P.351.

    Ganapolski, A., C. Kubatzki, M. Claussen, V.A. Brovkin, and V.K. Petoukhov, 1998. The influence of vegetation-atmosphere-ocean interaction on climate during the mid-Holocene. Science, V.280, P.1916-1919.

    Givishvili, G.V., et al., 1996. Long-term trends of some characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere: I. Experimental results. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.32, No.3, P.303-312.

    Golitsyn, G.S., 1995. The Caspian Sea level as a problem of diagnosis of the regional climate change. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.31, P.366-372.

    Golitsyn, G.S., et al., 1995. GCM simulation of water balance over the Caspian Sea and its watershed. Proc. First Intern. AMIP Sci. Conf. (Monterey, 1995), WMO/TD-No.732, P.113-118.

    Golitsyn, G.S., A.I. Semenov, N.N. Shefov, I.M. Fishkova, E.V. Lysenko, and S.P. Perov, 1996. Long-term temperature trends in the middle and upper atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., V.23, No.14, 1741-1744.

    Gruza, G.V., and E.Ya.Rankova, 1996a: Climate variability in frequency and lifetime of the main

    circulation patterns in the Northern moderate latitudes. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., No.1, 12-22.

    Gruza, G.V., and E.Ya.Rankova, 1996b: Classification of circulation patterns in the Northern extratropics by the location of axial isohypse of the upper air frontal zone at the 500-hPa surface. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., No.2, 5-13.

    Gruza, G.V., E.Ya. Rankova, V. Razuvaev and O. Bulygina, 1999: Indicators of climate change for the Russian Federation. Climatic change. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London (in press)

    Gruza, G.V., E.Ya. Rankova, L.K. Klestchenko and L.N. Aristova, 1999: The relationship of climatic anomalies over Russian territory with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., No.5, 26-45.

    Gruza, G., and E. Rankova, 1999: Climatic response to changes in greenhouse gases concentration as based on the surface air temperature observations over the Russia territory. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 1999, v.35 (in press)

    Gruzdev, A.N., and S.A. Sitnov, 1997. Differences in vertical distributions of ozone and meteorological parameters by ozonesonde data. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 1997, v.33, 97-103.

    Gulev, S.K., 1995. Long-term variability of sea-air heat transfer in the North Atlantic Ocean. Intern. J. Climatol., V.6, P.1743-1753.

    Gulev, S.K., 1997. Climate variability of the intensity of synoptic processes in the North Atlantic midlatitudes. J. Climate, V.10, P.574-592.

    Gushchina, D.Yu., and M.A. Petrosyants, 1998. Coupling between surface temperature of equatorial Pacific with circulation in atmospheric centers of action. Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Ac. Sci., V.357, No.1, P.99-103.

    Jadin, E.A., 1997. Diagnosis of long-term changes in stratospheric dynamics. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.6.

    Jadin, E.A., 1995. Anomalies of ozone layer and stratospheric angular momentumDiagnosis of long-term changes in stratospheric dynamics. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.7, P.48-55.

    Karol, I.L., Kiselev A.A., and V.A. Frolkis, 1995. Radiative-photochemical modeling of the annually averaged composition and temperature of the global atmosphere during the last glacial and interglacial periods. J. Geophys. Res., V.100, P.7291-7302.

    Karol, I.L., 1996. Evaluation of characteristics describing a relative contribution of greenhouse gases to global climate warming. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.11, P.5-12.

    Karol, I.L, V.A. Zubov, E.V. Rozanov, C. Bruhl, and A. Ziger, 1997. Model reconstruction of seasonal and latitudinal changes of transport and composition of trace gases and temperature in the stratosphere during pre-industrial and last glacial periods. Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Ac. Sci., V.357, No.1, P.99-103.

    Kattsov, V.M., et al., 1997. Sea-ice compactness effect on high-latitude atmospheric variability. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.4, P.43-54.

    Kattsov, V.M., et al., 1998. Freshwater budget of polar regions: estimates with atmospheric general circulation models. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.34, No.4. P.429-438.

    Kiselev, A.A., and V.A. Frolkis, 1995. Role of individual shares in the expected changes of the tropospheric and stratospheric ozone content in the XXI century. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.11, P.52-62.

    Kislov, A.N., 1996. Parameterization of the snow cover boundary in energy balance models of climate. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.32, No.1. P.42-45.

    Kislov, A.V., and G.V. Surkova, 1995. Regional climate model. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.5, P.23-31.

    Kislov, A.V., and G.V. Surkova, 1997. The use of a limited area climate model for estimation of variations in evaporation minus precipitation from Caspian Sea during Holocene. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.1. P.8-15.

    Kondratyev, K.Ya., 1998. Aerosols and climate: Some results and perspectives of remote sensing. 2. Tropospheric aerosols. J. Earth Research from Space, No.5, 103-126.

    Koshel'kov, Yu.P., and G.R. Zakharov, 1998. Temperature trends in the lower stratosphere of the Arctic. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.5, P.29-36.

    Kotlyakov, V.M., J.R. Petit, I. Basile, A. Leruyuet, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel, M. Stievenard, V.Y. Lipenkov, N.I. Barkov, B.B. Kudryashov, M. Davis, and E. Saltzman, 1997. Four climate cycles in Vostok ice core. Nature, V.387, 359-360.

    Kotlyakov, V.M., 1998. The World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources is a great present-day glaciological project. Proc. RAS, Geograph. Ser., No.5, 10-23.

    Krenke, A.N., and L.M. Kitaev, 1998. Impact of ENSO on snow cover in the former Soviet Union. GEWEX News, November, P.5.

    Krenke, A.N., L.M. Kitaev, D.V. Turkov, E.M. Ayzina, and T.G. Kadomtseva, 1997. Interannual snow cover changeability over the former USSR territory and its climatic role. Cryosphere, No.1, P.39-46, No.2, P.27-34.

    Kurbatkin, G.P., E.A. Korotkova, and V.D. Smirnov, 1998. Role of humidity in the dynamics of transient seasons. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.34, No.5, P.551-558.

    Lappo, S.S., and Yu.A. Reva, 1997. Comparative analysis of long-term variability of Black and Caspian Sea levels. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.12, P.63-76.

    Lapshin, V.B., et al., 1998. Variability of carbon dioxide partial pressure in tropical Atlantic waters. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.12, P.77-87.

    Lupo, A., R. Oglesby, and I.I. Mokhov, 1997. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones: a study of Northern Hemisphere CCM1 model blocking events in present-day and double CO2 concentration atmospheres. Clim. Dyn., V.13, P.181-195.

    Lysenko, E.V., et al., 1997a. Changes in stratospheric and mesospheric thermal conditions during last three decades: 1. Evolution of temperature trend. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.2, P.218-225.

    Lysenko, E.V., et al., 1997b. Changes in stratospheric and mesospheric thermal conditions during last three decades: 2. Evolution of annual and semiannualtemperature oscillations. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.2, P.226-233.

    Meleshko, V.P., et al., 1998. Calculation of water balance components over the Caspian Sea watershed with a set of atmospheric general circulation models. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.34, No.4, P.534-542.

    Meshcherskaya, A.V., and V.G. Blazhevich, 1997. The drought and excessive moisture indices in a historical perspective in the principal grain-producing regions of the former Soviet Union. J. Climate, V.10, P.2670-2682.

    Mirvis, V.M., et al., 1996. Long-period tendencies of change of the warm and vegetational temporal seasons duration over the former USSR. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.9, P.106-115.

    Mirvis, V.M., et al., 1998. Assessment of change in continentality of climate in Russia by amplitude-phase characteristics of the annual cycle from observations of daily mean air temperature during last century. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.7, P.5-18.

    Mokhov, I.I., and P.K. Love, 1995. Diagnostics of cloudiness evolution in the annual cycle and interannual variability in the AMIP. Proc. First Intern. AMIP Sci. Conf. (Monterey, 1995), WMO/TD-No.732, P.49-53.

    Mokhov, I.I., V.K. Petukhov, and A.O. Senatorsky, 1995. Sensitivity of storm track activity and blockings to global climatic changes: Diagnosis and modelling. Publ. Acad. Finland 6/95. 438-441.

    Mokhov, I.I., and A.V. Eliseev, 1997. Tropospheric and stratospheric temperature annual cycle: Tendencies of change. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.4., P.415-426.

    Mokhov, I.I., V.A. Bezverkhny and A.V. Eliseev, 1997. Quasi-biennial oscillations of the atmospheric temperature regime: Tendencies of change. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.5, P.579-587.

    Mokhov, I.I., and V.A. Semenov, 1997. Bimodality of probability density functions for intra-seasonal variations of surface air temperature. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.33, No.6., P.758-764.

    Mokhov, I.I., and V.K. Petukhov 1997. Blockings and their tendencies of change.Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Ac. Sci., V.357, No.5, P.687-689.

    Mokhov, I.I., V.K. Petukhov, A.V. Eliseev and V.A. Semenov, 1997. Intra- and interannual climate variability in Asia (Siberia): Tendencies of change derived from observations and IAP RAS model simulations. IHAS, Nagoya, No.4, P.347-352.

    Mokhov, I.I., V.K. Petukhov, and V.A. Semenov, 1998. Multiple intraseasonal temperature regimes and their evolution in the IAP RAS climate model. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.34, No.2, P.145-152.

    Mokhov, I.I., and A.V. Eliseev, 1998. Tendencies of change of the characteristics of zonal wind and temperature quasi-biennial oscillations in the equatorial lower stratosphere. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.34, No.3.

    Morozova, I.V., and G.N. Myasnikov, 1997. Variations of possible global solar radiation at the earth surface. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.10, P.38-48.

    Nagurny, A.P., 1995. Multiyear change of sea ice thickness in the Arctic basin. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.6, P.80-83.

    Perevedentsev, Yu.P., et al., 1997. Long-term variability of zonal circulation in the troposphere and stratosphere of middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.12, P.19-29.

    Perevedentsev, Yu.P., et al., 1998. Structure and interrelations of winter macrocirculation processes in the midlatitude troposphere and stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.5, P.25-35.

    Petoukhov, V.K., I.I. Mokhov, A.V. Eliseev, and V. A. Semenov, 1998. The IAP RAS global climate model. Dialogue-MSU, Moscow, 110 p.

    Petoukhov, V.K., A. Ganopolski, V.K. Brovkin, M. Claussen, A.V. Eliseev, K. Kubatzki, S. Rahmstorf, 1998. Climber-2: A climate system model of intermediate complexity. Part I: Model description and performance for present climate. PIK Report No.35, Potsdam, 41 p.

    Pisnitchenko, I.A., and M.V. Kurgansky, 1996. Adiabatic invariants and diagnostic studies of climate. An. Acad. Bras. Ci., V.68 (Supl.1), 261-277.

    Polyakov, I.V., et al., 1998. Thermodynamic ice-ocean model: description and experiments. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., V.34, No.1. P.41-48.

    Rankova, E., and G. Gruza, 1998: Indicators of climate change for the Russian Federation. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., No.1, 5-18.

    Rozanov, E.V., et al., 1998. Investigation of the effect of aerosol particles on surface inversion layer parameters in the Arctic. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., No.2, P.16-24.

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    V.P. Dymnikov and M.V. Kurgansky

    During the 1995-1999 period, the following trends of research that could be referred to the problems of dynamical meteorology were developed at the Institute of Numerical

    Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences.

    1. The study of the nature of low-frequency variability of atmospheric circulation.

    It is well known that the low-ferquency variability of atmospheric circulation is equivalent-barotropic. There are several hypotheses forming the basis for the explanation of

    the phenomenoon of low-frequency variability of atmospheric circulation. One of the main hypotheses is that in the frame of which the low-frequency variability can be accounted for

    by applying the dynamic-stochastic model. From the physical point of view, this model signifies that the spacial structure of the low-frequency variability is controlled by the average zonal-asymmetrical state of the atmosphere and is excited by synoptic vortices; moreover, this excitation can be described by simple stochastic models of the white noise type in space and time. This hypothesis was verified by a two-layer barocline model of the atmosphere (Dymnikov and Gritsoun, 1996). It was shown that, with a certain degree of accuracy,

    this description is possible; however, if the linearized operator of the problem relative to the middle state is applied as the linear operator, then the difficulties appear with the accuracy of description of the first natural orthogonal component (EOF) of low-frequency variation, because the first EOF is zonally-symmetrical and requires for its desciption the solution of the closure problem. It was also demonstrated that the main barotropic energy transformations,

    in the course of formation of low-frequency variability, occur at the upper levels of the troposphere, and the equivalently-barotropic EOF structure is formed owing to the

    quasi-stationary waves propagation along the vertical to the lower levels. The problem of the linear operator formulation for the description of the low-frequency variation of

    circulation was also studied in the papers by Dymnikov (1998), Dymnikov and Gritsoun (1997). An analysis of the physical mechanismsm of the main EOF low-frequency changes in

    atmospheric circulation was carried out in the paper by Volodin and Galin (1998).

    The second hypothesis concerning the formation of low-frequency variability of circulation on definite time scales is that of the atmospheric circulation regimes. The dynamical and statistical theories of the double-regime circulation were presented in two papers by Dymnikov and

    Filatov (1995 and 1996). The application of a joint model of the general circulation of the atmosphere and of the upper layer of the ocean has shown that an important element in the

    formation of the frequency of the blocking regime over the Atlantic is the atmosphere-ocean interaction in the middle latitudes (Dymnikov et al., 1995).

    2. The theory of atmospheric currents stability

    Within the frame of this topic, the stability of the nonstationary atmospheric currents was studied by applying the method of the local and global Lyapunov indices. An example of

    the barotropic problem was applied to show that under certain conditions (parameters characterizing the solution of unstable modes, the energy cascade along the spectrum, and the spatial resolution of excitation) the regime of super-instability may appear in the system (Dymnikov and Gritsoun, 1997).

    3. The boundary layer theory

    a) A new approach was elaborated for the construction of non-local closures for the vertical turbulent heat transfer in convective boundary layers. As an alternative to the

    traditional diffusive representation of the "flow of heat flow", an advective-diffusion approximation is suggested, which takes into account the fact that, owing to the presence

    of coherent structures, the vertical movements in the convective boundary layer show considerable asymmetry. In the course of application of this parameterization to the transport

    item in the heat budget equation, a formal solution was obtained using the Green function, which provides a general expression of a non-local closure for the heat flow. In particular,

    several already known closures follow from this expression. A modification of this non-local closure is also suggested based on the additional attraction of advective approximation

    for the flow of potential temperature variability, in which the effects of its fluctuations assymetry are also taken into account. As a result, the problem is reduced to the

    linear differential equation of the relative heat flow with the given lower and upper boundary conditions. By using the empirical universal functions for presentation of coefficients

    of this equation in analytical form, the solution of the problem is obtained in the terms of the Gauss hypergeometric function. In the general case, it is shown that the Green function can be approximated using several first modes of expansion into series by the intrinsic functions of the

    operator of the problem, which seems essential for elaboration of the practically applicable parameterization of the convective boundary layer in global models (Lykossov, 1995;

    1998; Zilitinkevich et al., 1997; 1999; Mironov et al, 1999).

    b) The turbulence processes were studied in the near-surface atmospheric layer. With this aim in view, the direct (pulsation) measurements were used over the Antarctic seas, in the Arctic, and on the North Sea coast. The results show that the known Toms effect (a sudden reduction of the surface resistence of friction) is also observed in the atmosphere at sufficiently high velocities of the wind in currents over the snow-covered and sandy surfaces. A one-dimensional model of the boundary layer of the atmosphere, with parameterization of the effects of the near-surface snow transfer and with calculations of heat transfer across the ice cover of the ocean, was used to study the diurnal dynamics of the catabatic winds of the Antarctic under conditions of intrusion of a relatively warm air mass (Lykossov and Wamser, 1995; Wamser and Lykossov, 1995; 1996; Wamser et al., 1997).


    In the 1995-1999 period, at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS, the following trends of research were developed, i.e., those that can be referred to the problems of dynamic meteorology.

    1. The theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere, and the dynamical climatology

    (a) The digital and laboratory modelling was carried out of the quasi-two-dimensional turbulence excited by the double-periodic grating from the vortex sources. It was found

    that: a) the characteristic scale of the energy-bearing vortices grows powerwise with the growth of the Reynolds number; b) the spectral flow of energy is unstable and depends

    by attenuation on the wave number; c) as a consequence of a) and b), the characteristics of the developed quasi-two-dimensional turbulence, in contrast to the strictly two-dimensional turbulence, are not autosimulated by the Reynolds number (Danilov and Dolzhansky, 1998).

    (b) A considerable influence is remarked of the long gravity waves on the appearance and characteristics of the atmospheric macroturbulence (Sazonov and Yakushkin, 1999).

    (c) A laboratory experiment was carried out on the modelling of a streamline flow of the zonal current over a large-scale impediment. The low frequency fluctuations of the general

    circulation (with the periods of 20-60 model days) were observed to be caused by the orographic effect (Sazonov and Chernous'ko, 1988).

    (d) The inherent climatic superlow frequency variability of climate was studied by using the simple models of the general atmospheric circulation.

    In order to understand the role of the natural atmospheric dynamics processes in the determination of the long-term (at inter-year and decade time intervals) climatic changes, the long-term integrations by time of two simplified spectral models of the atmosphere were used. The first was the two-dimensional barocline model of the atmosphere (Kurgansky et al., 1996), which was constructed with due allowance for the orography and the zonal thermal forcing; a very rough spatial resolution was applied, which took into account two zonal harmonics and one ultra-long nonzonal wave in the fields of geostrophic function of flow and temperature. The obtained dynamic system was integrated for 1100 years (one hundred 11-year cycles), and it revealed a chaotic behaviour of the solution at realistic values of parameters, both in the presence and in the absence of the annual run in the zonal thermal forcing. The model showed a maximal variability in the vicinity of the 3-, 13- and 26-year periods. An analysis conducted on the basis of empiric orthogonal functions (EOF) showed that these climatic fluctuations are mainly caused by the interaction between the orographically excited standing wave and the average zonal flow. The second model (Dethloff et al., 1998) is the traditional two-level barocline model incorporating the orography and the zonal thermal forcing and also including the estimation of the waves of the synoptic scale (barocline waves) together with the ultra-long waves; this model was used for the integrations during the 10 000 years period. A considerable inherent low-frequency variation of quasi-barotropic nature was discovered in the periods ranging from several years to centuries.

    (e) A description of climatic processes in the atmosphere in terms of the Ertel potential vortex.

    A method is suggested for finding the optimal normalized function in the general determination of the potential Ertel vortex. The method is based on finding the minimum of difference in informational entropies of the actual density of the air mass distribution by the potential vortex values and on obtaining a statistically equilibrated ("Boltzmann") density of distribution. The effectivity of the method was isllustrated by digital examples (Kurgansky and Pisnitchenko,

    1997; Kurgansky, 1997 a, b). A brief analytical review is presented of different diagnostic methods based on the potential temperature application (thermodynamic entropy) and

    the Ertel potential vortex, and also of certain functionals of these fields for the analysis of weather regimes and climatic changes. An example is given of the application of some of

    these methods for the output data diagnosis of the general circulation model presented by the Center for Weather Prediction and Climate Research (CPTEC/INPE), Brazil (Pisnitchenko and Kurgansky, 1996).

    2. Dynamics of intensive atmospheric processes.

    The process of formation of intensive atmospheric vortices (of the whirlwing and tornado type) is treated as the genesis of a large vortex structure from smaller ones. This phenomenon

    actually belongs to the synergetic class of events. With this purpose in view, a modification of the "turbulent vortex dynamo" model was suggested with consideration of the reverse damping effect of the general air circulation in the intensive vortex on the small-scale spiral turbulence, which induces this "dynamo". The model describes the quasi-stable regime, the characteristics of which are determined independently from the energy-balance notionson the assumption that the small-scale turbulence has the moisture-convective nature. The integrated hydrodynamic and thermodynamic approaches allowto find the parameters of the spiral turbulence that causes the specified dynamo-effect. As an illustration, an example is considered of the initial hirlwindlike vortex generation at the base of the rotating thunderstorm cloud (Kurgansky, 1995; 1998; 1999).


    1. Volodin E.M. and Galin V.Ya. The study of the first mode of low-frequency variability of the winter atmospheric circulation in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Meteorology and Hydrology, 1998, no. 9, pp. 26-40.
    2. Grotsoun A.S. and Dymnikov V.P. Response of barotropic atmosphere to minor external effects. Theory and Digital Experiments. Izvestiya RAN, FAO, 1999. (In the press).
    3. Danilov S.D. and Dolzhansky F.V. Restriction of the scale of energycontaining vortices in the quasi-two-dimensional currents with near-bottom friction. Izvestiya RAN, FAO, 1998,vol. 34, pp. 293-300.
    1. Dymnikov V.P., Gritsun A.S. Barotropic instability and the structure of circulation low-frequency variability generated by two-layer baroclinic model of the atmosphere. Izv. RAN, FAO. 1996, V. 32, No. 5, pp. 724 - 735.
    2. Dymnikov V.P. Dynamic stochastic models of atmospheric low-frequency variability. Russian J. Numer. Anal. & Math. Modeling. 1996. V. 11, No. 5, pp. 369 - 374.
    3. Dymnikov V.P., Gritsoun A.S. On the structure of the finite-dimensional approximations of the barotropoic vorticity equation on a rotatinf sphere. Russia J. Numer. Anal. & Math. Modeling. 1997. V. 12, No. 1, pp. 13 -33.
    4. Dymnikov V.P., Volodin E.M. The sensitivity of climatic models to minor external effects. Doklady RAN. 1998. V. 359. No. 3, pp. 394 - 396.
    5. Dymnikov V.P. The predictability of climatic changes. Izvestiya RAN, FAO. 1998. V. 34, No. 6, pp. 741 - 751.
    6. Dymnikov V.P., Alekseev V.A., Volodin E.M., Galin B.Ya., Diansky N.A., Lykosov V.N., Ezau I.N. Numerical modeling of the joint circulation of the atmosphere and the upper layer of the ocean. Izv. RAN, FAO. 1995. V. 31, No. 3, pp. 324 - 346.
    7. Dymnikov V.P., Filatov A./N. Several problems of the mathematical theory of the climate. Izvestiya RAN, FAO. 1995. V. 31, No. 3, pp. 313 - 323.
    8. Kurgansky M.V., Pisnichenko I.A. Potential vortex as a climatic characteristic of the atmosphere. Dokl. AN, 1997, V. 357, No. 1, pp. 104 - 107.
    9. Kurgansky M.V. The generation of vorticity in the moist atmosphere. Izv. AN FAO. 1998. V. 34, No. 2, pp. 175 - 181.
    10. Sazonov I.A., Yakushkin I.G. The evolution of perturbations in three-layer model of the atmosphere with transverse instability. Izv. AN, FAO, 19999, V. 35, No. 2.
    11. Sazonov I.A., Chernousko Yu. L. Vortex conditions of flowing around the mountain by zonal flow in beta-channel. Izv. AN, FAO, 1998, V. 34, No. 1, pp. 25 - 32.
    12. Dethloff, K., A. Weisheimer, A. Rinke, D. Handorf, M.V. Kurgansky, W. Jansen, P. Maass, P. Hupfer, 1998: Climate variability in a nonlinear atmosphere-like dynamical system, J. Geophys. Res., V. 103, No, D20, pp. 25, 957-25,966.
    13. Dymnikov V.P., Filatov A.N. Mathematics of climate modeling. 196. Birkhaueser, 255 pp.
    14. Gritsoun, A.S., Dymnikov V.P. Response of barotropic atmosphere to the small perturbations of external forcing. Theory and numerical experiments. Proceedings of the fourth bilateral conference "Variability and predictability of atmospheric and oceanic circulations", Moscow, 1998.
    15. Kurgansky, M.V., K. Dethloff, I.A. Pisnichenko, H. Gernandt, F.-M. Chmielewski, W. Jansen, 1996: Long-term climate variability in a simple, nonlinear atmospheric model, J.Geophys. res., V. 101, No. D2, p. 4299 - 4314.
    16. Kurgansky M.V. Potential vorticity as an atmospheric climate variable. In: Ertel's Potential Vorticity (Ertel's Collected Papers, V. III). Eds. W. Schroeder and H.-J. Treder. Interdivisional Commission on History of IAGA and History Commission of German Geophysical Society, Bremen-Roennebeck, 1997, p. 107 - 121.
    17. Kurgansky M.V. Ertel's potential vorticity theorem and its influence on the development of geophysical fluid dynamics in Russia. Ibid., p. 138 - 149.
    18. Kurgansky M.V. Large-scale vorticity generation in the presence of a permanent source of helical turbulence, In Book of Abstracts of the 336th EUROMECH Colloquium on Flows Dominated by Centrifugal and Coriolis Forces, the Norwegian Institute of Tecnnology, the Norwegian Institute of Technology, the University of Trondheim, Norway. 1995. pP. 114 - 115.
    19. Kurgansky M. Vorticity genesis in the moist atmosphere. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 1999 (Accepted for publication).
    20. Lykossov V. Turbulence closure for the boundary layer with coherent structures: an overview. Technical Report No. 63, AWI for Polar- and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995, pp. 27.
    21. Lykossov V.N. Non-local turbulence closure for convective boundary layers. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modeling. 1998. V. 13, pp. 493 - 500.
    22. Lykossov V.N., Wamser C. Turbulence intermittency in the atmospheric surface layer over snow covered cities. Bound. Layer Meteorol. 1995. V. 72. Pp. 393 - 409.
    23. Mironov D.V., Gryanik V.M., Lykossov V.N., Zilitinkevich S.S. Comments on "A new second-order turbulence closure scheme for the planetary boundary layer" by K. Abdella and N. McFarlane. - Accepted by J.Atmos. Sci. 1999.
    24. Pisnitchenko I., Kurgansky M. Adiabatic invariants and diagnostic studies of climate. An Acad. bras. Ci. 1996, V. 68 (Supl. 1), pp. 261 - 277.
    25. Wamser C., Lykossov V.N. On the friction velocity dring blowing snow. Contr. Atmos.Physics. 1995. V. 68, pp. 85 - 94.
    26. Wamser C., Lykossov V.N. High resolutions turbulence measurements above Arctic sea ice. - Proceedings of Moscow ISAR'96 8-th Int. Symposium on Acoustic Remote Sensing, 1996, pp. 7.13 - 7.18.
    27. Wamser C., Peters G., Lykossov V.N. The frequency responce of sonic anemometers. - Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 1997. V. 84, pp. 231 - 246.
    28. Zilitinkevich S.S., Gryanik V.M., Lykossov V.N., Mironov D.V. A look at the hierarchy of non-local turbulence closures for convective boundary layers. - Berichte aus dem Fachbereich Physik, Report 81, Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997, pp. 31.
    29. Zilitinkevich S.S., Gryanik V.M., Lykossov V.N., Mironov D.V. Third-order transport and non-local turbulence closures for convective boundary layers. - Accepted by J. Atmos. Sci. 1999.




    The researches in the field of atmospheric chemistry which is carried out in Russia per last years, are carried on in a number of the important directions, including studying homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical processes, mathematical simulation of the atmosphere, and also monitoring most important from the ecological point of view atmospheric components of the anthropogenic and natural origin.

    A study of impact of the human activity on global warming and ozone layer are considered to be an important application goal of these investigations.

    We begin our review from the results in the field of heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry, which attracts the greatest attention last years.

    Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    During the past two decades great strides have been made toward understanding the recognition of the importance of heterogeneous/multiphase processes in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Over the past five years a substantial progress was achieved in the knowledge of features of aqueous phase oxidation of sulfite and that of transition metal ions catalysis of the process [1,2,4,6,7,9-11]. A new experimental technique of polyatomic radicals uptake coefficients measurements has been developed [3,5,8].

    A wide range exploration of a nature of so-called uncatalyzed reaction of sulfite autoxidation as a background process needed to clarify the mechanisms of cloud water acidification is now available [12]. They include measurements of the rate of the reaction at a pH approaching to the field conditions and that of inhibiting effects of some organic scavengers. The use ionizing radiation (X-rays, g -rays Co60 , E-beam) as a source of radicals allows to obtain the branching ratio of the self-reaction of SO5- radical which is a key chain carrier in the process [1,9]. The rate of the radiation-induced oxidation has been measured under high dose rate where kinetic chain length becomes unity and hence gives a direct measure of k1/k2: SO5 - + SO5 - Ю 2 SO4 - + O2 (k1); SO5- + SO5 - Ю S2O8 2- + O2 (k2) which was deduced to be 7. The ratio enables to derive an absolute value of the rate constant of the propagation step SO5- + HSO3- Ю HSO5- + SO3- (k3) taking as a reference rate constant the rate constant k2 and a number other rate constants in relevance to the process. These are significantly deviated from previous estimations known from the literature. An important point is also the evaluation [13,15,18] of the thermodynamic properties of oxysulphur radicals such as D Hf,298o(SOx-), Sf,298o(SOx-) (x = 2-5). These are needed to predict ab initio a such reaction’s pathways involving the sulfito-hydroxo complexes of iron(III) and that of oxysulphur radicals. The study of sulfite oxidation catalyzed by iron (III/II) leads to a conclusion that the reaction is a chain process having a degenerated branching chain component HSO5- + Fe2+ Ю FeOH2+ + SO4- [14,19,20].

    A new modification of matrix isolation ESR has been developed for the measurement of uptake of polyatomic radicals which are present in the atmosphere [5,8]. The technique is combine with either with a cylinder reactor having a movable source of radicals or a coaxial reactor having movable rod and a fixed source of radicals. As a result a number of HO2 and CH3O2 uptake coefficients were measured on different surfaces and the implications for atmospheric chemistry has been given [21].

    Homogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    In connection with the new data on a role of iodine cycle in depletion of atmospheric ozone indicating on a possible essential influence of the iodine components on the contents of ozone in the stratosphere, and also in connection with absence of reliable data on the rate constants of atmospheric chemical reactions of these particles the following elementary reactions of atmospheric interest were investigated [22 –25]

    I + O3 ® IO + O2;

    I + NO2 + M (=He, N2, Ar, O2) ® INO2 + M;

    IO + NO ® I + NO2;

    IO + (CH3)2S ® (CH3)2SO + I;

    IO + H2S ® H2SO + I;

    IO + NO2 + M ® IONO2 + M;

    IO + HCOOH ® HOI + HCOO;

    IO + CHCl2-CF2Cl ® HOI + CCl2-CF3Cl;

    IO + O3 ® I + 2O2;

    IO + IO ® 2I + O2;

    IO + ClO ® I + products;

    IO + BrO ® products;

    IO + CH3OCF3 ® HOI + CH2OCF3;

    CH3I + Cl ® products.

    The received data with taken into account the other literary photochemical stratospheric data were allowed to calculate relative role of the iodine cycle in destruction stratospheric ozone. It was shown, that in view of the different assumptions of the possible content of iodine components in stratosphere the contribution iodine cycle could be as much as 8-9%.

    Besides it other important for ozonosphere chemistry reactions were investigated, including

    Cl (2P3/2); Cl (2P1/2) + ICl ® products [26],

    FO + O3 ® F + O2; FO + O3 ® FO2 + O2 [27];

    OH (v = 7-9) + O2 ® HO2 + O [28];

    Br (Br *) + IBr ® Br2 + I [29].

    All investigated reactions, which were given above, are necessary to take into account in atmospheric mathematical models for more precisely predictions of the influence of antropogenic emissions on the ozone layer and climate of the Earth. Some data on a current situation in this field are discussed in [30].

    Monitoring of the atmospheric components

    Last years the interesting results were received in the field of monitoring ecologically important small atmospheric components. These data cover as results of measurements of local scale made mainly in the atmosphere over Moscow, and also data of measurements having more general character.

    The measurements of the first type are the results of monitoring ozone and nitrogen oxides over Moscow [31], measurements of pollution of the center of Moscow with carbon monoxide [32], research of seasonal variations in the concentration of a submicron sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere of Moscow and effect of long-range transport of this component [33], measurements of atmospheric soot aerosol over Moscow [34].

    Among the results of the second type it is worth to mention microwave measurements of carbon monoxide in the Earth’s mesosphere [35], vertical ozone profile determination from ground-based measurements of atmospheric millimetr-wave radiation [36], investigation of possibilities for determining the vertical structure of ozone content from ground-based measurement of IR radiation [37], measurements of composition of marine aerosol over the Western Arctic [38], and a study of a question on the contamination of the Russian Arctic from the different sources located in Europe [39-41].

    Model Simulation of the Atmosphere

    The results in the field of modeling atmospheric processes can be devided on two groups.

    To the first group it is possible to attribute results of investigations of the various atmospheric phenomena obtained with help of various mathematical models. Here it is necessary to mention the following works: a study of the effects of sulfur emissions from HSCT aircraft made with help of 2-D atmospheric model [42], a study of the effects of NOx and SO2 injections by supersonic aviation on sulfate aerosol and ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere [43], model simulation of zonal distributions of nitrogen oxides from surface sources in the midlatitude troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere [44], an investigation of the question on the natural mechanism of partial compensation of ozone depletion made with help of 2-D radiative-convective model of the middle atmosphere [45] and estimations of the change in the surface UV radiation for the period 1980-2000 as a result of changes in ozone layer [46].

    To the second group it is possible to attribute the works connected to improvement of existing atmospheric models. These works concern mainly various problems of parameterization of atmospheric properties in the radiative-convective models used for prognosis’s of global warming and also of changes in chemical composition of the atmosphere [47-53].


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    1. Routine observations of ozone layer parameters

    By the beginning of 1999, regular total ozone (TO) measurements on the territory of the former USSR were conducted at 40 ozonometric stations /Gushchin, 1999/, with 34 of them equipped with filter ozonometers M-124, 2 with Dobson spectrophotometer (St. Peterburg and Moscow), 3 with Brewer spectrophotometers (Yakutsk, Obninsk, and Kislovodsk) and 1 with SAOZ spectrophotometer (Zhigansk). Routine data acquisition and monitoring of the state of TO field was performed by the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO) of Roshydromet at Dolgoprudny (in the suburbs of Moscow). On the average, from 19 to 27 stations usually provide their daily measurements to a monitoring system. The system of TO monitoring was organized in late 80s. It enables TO field mapping in absolute units (D.U.) as well as in absolute and relative (percent and standard deviation units) deviations from the climatic values (calculated for the period 1974-1984). This system also permitted TO global mapping based on the data from TOMS instrument. Observational data from the Russian stations were operationally stored in CAO's data bank and during winter-spring seasons were promptly transmitted to the WMO European Center for the Ozonosphere Monitoring at Thessaloniki University, Greece. Apart from that, these data were also transmitted to the Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (MGO) of Roshydromet where they underwent examination by experts, aimed at controlling the status of measurement instrumentation on the ozonometric network, and further to the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Center of the WMO Environment Service in Downsview, Ontario, Canada.

    Ozonesondes were flown at Yakutsk and Moscow stations, but it was only in Yakutsk that these launchings were relatively regular. Measurements of ozone vertical distribution in mixing ratio units were regularly conducted within a 15-75 km altitudinal range over Moscow, using a 2-mm-wave spectroradiometer (ozonometer), by the Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) /Solomonov et al., 1998/ and over Nizhny Novgorod by the Institute of Applied Physics, RAS. At the Institute of Optics of the Atmosphere (IOA), RAS (Tomsk), regular lidar measurements of ozone profiles (12-35 km), aerosol (12-30 km), nitrogen dioxide (12-45 km), and temperature (2-75 km) are carried out /Zuev et al., 1997/.

    At present, regular measurements of surface ozone are conducted at several stations in Russia: Kislovodsk base (44 ° N, 43 ° E) of the Obukhov Institute of Physics of the Atmosphere (IPA) (since April, 1989), at IOA in Tomsk (56 ° N, 85 ° E) (since September 1989), at CAO, Roshydromet, in Dolgoprudny (near Moscow, 56 ° N, 38 ° E) (since February 1991), and at the Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI) in Apatity (68 ° N, 32 ° E) (since 1998). Apart from that, separate measurements of surface ozone were made by IPA in Moscow and PGI in the north-west of Russia. In Kislovodsk, measurements are made with a Dasibi 1008 AH UV-photometric ozonometer (USA), in Tomsk with a 3.02.P1 chemiluminescent ozonometer (OPTEC, St.Petersburg), in Dolgoprudny with an electrochemical meter based on ECC-5 ozonesonde, in Apatity with a Model F 105 UV-photometric ozonometer (OPTEC). On October 1, 1998, regular measurements of ozone and nitrogen oxide concentrations were initiated at Zvenigorod station of IPA. On January 1, 1999, measurements of surface ozone concentration (SOC) using a Dasibi 1008 AH gas-analyzer were started at the PGI station Lovozero (the Kola Peninsular).

    A system of monitoring the illumination of the Russian and the neighboring territories with natural UV-B radiation (290-315 nm) has been developed at CAO. This system builds upon long-term experimental measurements of UV radiation and enables, based on routine satellite-borne data on cloud cover and underlying surface albedo as well as on either routine satellite-borne or ground-based TO data, the retrieval of Russia's UV-B illumination field. The precision of this system is such that 67 % of its data differ from the results of reference ground measurements by not more than 20 %, while 73 % of them do by 25 %. In the future, this system is planned to be complemented with a short-term forecast of UV-B illumination for given territories /Ivanova et al., 1999/.

    Since late 1995, measurements of surface ozone and many other minor atmospheric gases have been conducted every year in the course of 4 expeditions (a fortnight-long each) from a research carriage moving along the Trans-Siberian railway between Moscow and Vladivostok /Crutzen et al., 1998/.

    Since February 1999, the Lomonosow Moscow State University (MSU) has been conducting the monitoring of short-wave UV radiation, sensible to total ozone changes, using an UV-meter (UVB-1 Yankee Inc.).

    During the period from 1991 to 1997, CAO issued "Bulletins of Ozone Layer State" (11 ones) in Russian and in English, where the most notable anomalies in total ozone field over Russia and the neighboring territories were described. In order to make ozonometric information always timely and easy of access, the journal "Meteorology and Hydrology", starting from No.2, 1998, includes regular quarterly reviews "Ozone amount over Russia and the neighboring territories" /Chernikov et al., 1998/. Besides, a section devoted to the ozone layer state is included in the annual issues "Overview of the environment pollution in the Russian Federation" published by Roshydromet.

    2. Output of the ozone layer studies

    Ozone layer studies involved Roshydromet research institutes (CAO in Dolgoprudny, MGO and the Research Institute of Arctica and Antarctica in St. Petersburg, Science and Production Association "Typhoon" in Obninsk, the Institute of Applied Geophysics in Moscow, etc.), the research institutes of the RAS (IPA in Moscow, the IOA in Tomsk, PGI in Apatity, etc.) as well as Russian universities (Moscow and St. Petersburg State Universities, the Russian State Hydrometeorological University in St. Petersburg, etc.). Besides, some investigations have been carried out in CIS member-countries (the Ukraine: Ukrainian Research Institute for Hydrometeorology, Kiev State University, the Ukrainian Antarctic Center; Byelorussia: the National Research and Education Center for the Ozonosphere Monitoring of the Byelorussian State University; Uzbekistan: Central Asian Research Institute for Hydrometeorology etc.). Besides, as part of Russia-Kirghizstan co-operation activities, the monitoring of the optical thickness of O3, NO2, H2O, CH4, and aerosol is being performed at Issyk-Kul' Lake.

    2.1. Total ozone and its vertical distribution

    During the winter and spring of 1996, somewhat reduced TO values were measured over the Russian territory; in March-April 1997, a vast and the most long-lasting anomaly with an up to 40 % TO deficit was observed over Eastern Siberia; during 1998, no considerable negative departures from TO climatic values were detected; moreover, most mean monthly TO values were higher than the climatic ones /Chernikov et al., 1999/. Based on satellite-borne data from Toms/Earth Probe, during the period from late 1997 to early 1998, significant (up to 20 % or more) negative TO anomalies were observed over the equatorial Pacific, which were associated with 1997/1998 El-Nino event /Chernikov et al., 1998/.

    Investigations of TO time variability, including the use of wavelet analysis, have specified TO behavior influenced by the atmosphere action centers, solar activity, planetary waves, migration of the subtropical planetary altitudinal frontal zone, and cyclonic formations. TO behavior as observed from the Russian stations during the 1973-1998 period has given evidence validating the earlier conclusion that long-term TO variability is largely connected with global climate changes, in particular, with changes in the weather parameters of the most important centers of the atmosphere's action /Bekoryukov et al., 1996; Kruchenitsky et al., 1996; Zvyagintsev and Kruchenitsky, 1996b, 1997b; Zvyagintsev et al., 1998/ and in the parameters of El-Nino / Southern Oscillation /Chernikov et al., 1998/. The analysis of a number of lidar observations of stratospheric ozone during the 1989-1998 period, with synoptic data involved, has demonstrated the marked role of dynamic processes in the vertical ozone distribution in the lower stratosphere /Zuev et al., 1997/.

    Experiments have been performed to validate an updated Umkehr technique and the theoretical estimates of the accuracy of ozone profile's retrieval using this technique have been specified /Elansky et al., 1998, 1999/. An updated numerical model of ozone-measurement experiment using Umkehr technique, based on solving the problem of radiation transfer in a twilight spherical atmosphere, taking polarization and multiple scattering into account, has been developed for inclusion in algorithms of vertical ozone retrieval. Using an improved vertical ozone retrieval algorithm, Umkehr observational data from the high-mountain research station "Kislovodsk" have been processed. The preparation of a database, re-processed by the new technique and including long-term vertical ozone measurements from the world ozonometric network, has been initiated.

    Connections of variability of extratropical and tropical cyclogenesis with variability of total ozone in tropical and middle latitudes continue be investigated in SPA "Typhoon". Statistical characteristics of the ozonosphere variability in the same latitudes are investigated in CAO by new space-borne data processing techniques using spectral-time, wavelet and regression analysis.

    At Baranov Central Institute of Aircraft Instrument Making, detailed kinetic models of ozone formation processes in the middle atmosphere have been developed considering both the reactions of photodissociation from electron-excitation levels and chemical reactions, the reactions of E-E and E-T exchange, and the dynamics of ozone formation has been analyzed considering these processes /Starik and Taranov, 1999/. Also, the processes of NOx, HNOy, HOx, CxHy, and Oy formation with the propagation of shock waves in the atmosphere have been analyzed /Starik and Titova, 1999/. Physicomathematical models have been constructed making it possible to obtain information on changes in the composition of aircraft fuel combustion products and on the formation of sulfate aerosols and ice particles during the mixing of exhaust gases from jet engine with atmospheric air /Saveliеv et al., 1999/. Basic problems have been discussed and avenues laid out for carrying out investigations of aircraft influence on atmospheric processes /Popovicheva et al., 1998/.

    At the Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics, RAS, kinetic studies have been carried out of elemental reactions involving iodide-containing substances, which permit the evaluation of their contribution to the depletion of stratospheric ozone /Larin et al., 1999/. Also, IR-radiation absorption cross-sections have been measured and the green-house potentials of long-lived fluorocarbons such as CF4, C2F6, and C3F8 have been determined /Larin et al., 1997/.

    In order to study the evolution of the atmosphere's chemical composition, air bubbles in samples of Antarctic ice of pre-industrial age are being analyzed to discover the presence of chlorofluorocarbons and related substances /Grishchenko et al., 1997/.

    Based on the measurements of UV radiation with wavelength less than 380 nm and the empirical model developed at MSU, the variability of short-wave, biologically active UV radiation during the warm seasons of 1968-1997 in Moscow has been retrieved. As per the calculations made, an UV radiation minimum occurred in late 70s, with its distinct growth observed from early 90s /Nezval, 1996; Chubarova, 1997, 1998/.

    Activities have been continued aimed at estimating the effect of UV-B radiation enhancement on the biosphere (the Institute of Medico-Biological Problems, Kurchatov Center, the Lebedev Physics Institute, CAO). The data collected confirm earlier conclusions made by scientists from U.K., Canada, and USA about the uncertainty of response of various aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to the growing of UV-B radiation level during the last decades.

    Russia participated in carrying out 1996-1997 Airborne Polar Experiment (APE) devoted to the investigation of polar stratospheric clouds, using the Russian high-altitude aircraft M-55 "Geophysika"; in the space experiment "CRISTA / MAHRSI-2 Campaign" (August, 1997) devoted to measurements of the thermodynamic parameters and amount of minor gaseous constituents (including ozone) in the middle atmosphere, aimed at the investigation of their fine structure and the effects of dynamic disturbances. International co-operation is continuing under the Russia-USA Project "Meteor-3 / SAGE-3 (to be launched in September, 1999) and the 3rd European experiment to study the ozone layer, THESEO (participation in O3-LOSS ozone sounding project).

    2.2 Surface ozone

    It is shown that for stations in the middle latitudes of Northern Hemisphere, the interannual variation of surface ozone concentration is dominated by the yearly harmonic, the amplitudes of the second and higher harmonics being less by an order of magnitude /Zvyagintsev et al., 1998; Zvyagintsev and Kruchenitsky, 1999/. Surface ozone fields in Europe, like in North America, have characteristic inhomogeneity dimensions near 500-1000 km. For the time series of surface ozone from the European stations situated approximately at the same latitude, but longitudinally separated by a 600-1100 km distance (pairs of stations: Sibton, U.K., - Neuglobsow, Germany; Neuglobsow - Preila, Lithuania; Preila - Dolgoprudny, Russia), a statistically significant cross-correlation, with its maximum for a day's time shift, is observed, which testifies to trans-boundary eastward transport of surface ozone fields over large distances in spring and summer months /Zvyagintsev and Kruchenitsky, 1996c, 1997a/. In time series of surface ozone in Europe it is well noticeable the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation /Zvyagintsev and Kruchenitsky, 1999/.

    Based on long-term measurements made in Dolgoprudny, the parameters have been established of an empirical model for the description of surface ozone in terms of time, including the dependence on Julian day, surface temperature and humidity /Zvyagintsev and Kruchenitsky, 1996a, 1996c/. A regression model makes it possible to account for 80 % of experimentally observed surface ozone dispersion.

    Based on the results of measurements conducted in the center of Moscow /Elansky and Smirnova, 1997/ and at the TOR-monitoring station in Tomsk Academgorodok /Belan et al., 1998/, the photochemical equilibrium between O3, NO, and NO2 in their time variations has been established.


    Bekoryukov, V.I., Bugaeva, I.V., Zakharov, G.R. et al. Long-term ozone oscillations and weather parameters of the troposphere and stratosphere as a result of the evolution of climate-forming centers of the atmosphere action. - Optica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 9, No. 9, p. 1243-1249, 1996. (In Russian)

    Belan, B.D., Kovalevski, V.K., Plotnikov, A.P. et al. Time dynamics of ozone and nitrogen oxides in the ground layer near Tomsk. - Optica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 9, No. 12, p. 1325-1327, 1998. (In Russian)

    Chernikov, A.A., Borisov, Yu.A., Zvyagintsev, A.M. et al. The influence of 1970/1998 El-Nino event on the Earth's ozone layer. - Meteorologia i Gidrologia, No. 3, p. 104-110, 1998. (In Russian)

    Chernikov, A.A., Biuro, E.D., Zvyagintsev, A.M. et al. Ozone content over Russia and the neighboring territories in 1998. - Meteorologia i Gidrologia, No. 2, p. 118-125, 1999. (In Russian)

    Chubarova N.Ye. Ozone influence upon UV radiation and possible compensation of its impact by other atmospheric factors. - In: WCRP-99 WMO/TD No. 814, Vol.2 "Stratospheric processes and their role in climate (SPARC), p. 521-524, 1997.

    Chubarova, N.E. Ultraviolet radiation under conditions of broken cloud cover from long-term ground-based observations. - Izvestia RAS. Physica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 34, No. 1, p. 145-150, 1998. (In Russian)

    Crutzen P.J., N.F. Elansky, M. Hahn, G.S. Golitsyn, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, D. Scharffe, I.B.Belikov, M. Maiss, P. Bergamaschi, T. Rockmann, A.M. Grisenko and V.V. Sevostyanov. Trace gas measurements between Moscow and Vladivostok using the Trans-Siberian railroad. - J. Atm. Chemistry, v. 29, p. 179-194, 1998.

    Gushchin G.P. Forty years of total ozone observations at network stations of Russia and CIS. - Meteorologia i Gidrologia (in press), 1999. (In Russian)

    Elansky, N.F., Smirnova, O.I. The concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides in the surface air of Moscow. - Izvestia RAN, Physica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 33, No. 5, p. 597-611, 1997. (In Russian)

    Elansky N.F., O.V.Postylyakov, I.V.Mitin, A.F.Bais, C.S.Zerefos. The Extended Umkehr Method for Retrieving Ozone Profiles from Brewer Observations. - Proc. Quadr. Ozone Symp. 1996, L'Aquila, Italy, p. 119-122. 1998.

    Elansky, N.F., Mitin, I.V., Postyliakov, O.V. Investigation of the limits in improving the accuracy of measuring vertical ozone distribution with Brewer spectrophotometer. - Izvestia RAN. Physica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 35, No. 1, p. 73-85, 1999. (In Russian)

    Grishchenko, V.F., Belyavsky, A.V., Kruchenitsky, G.M. et al. Ozone-depleting, volatile organic substances in Antarctic ice of pre-industrial age. - Bulletin of the Ukrainian Antarctic Center, issue 1, p. 202-207, 1997. (In Russian)

    Ivanova, N.S., Kruchenitsky, G.M., Chernikov, A.A. Creating the first line of the system of UV-radiation monitoring in Russia. - Optica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 12, No. 1, 1999. (In Russian)

    Kruchenitsky, G.M., Bekoriukov, V.I., Voloshchuk, V.M. et al. On the contribution of dynamic processes to the formation of abnormally low values of total ozone in the Northern Hemisphere. - Optica Atmoshpery i Oceana, v. 9, No. 9, p. 1233-1242, 1996. (In Russian)

    Larin, I.K., Gushchin, A.G., Maximov, B.N. Estimates of the green-house potential of CF4, C2F6, and C3F8. - Chemical Physics, v. 16, No. 12, p. 10-19, 1997. (In Russian)

    Larin, I.K., Nevozjay, D.V., Spassky, A.I. et al. Measuring the rate constants of the reaction between iodide monoxide and ozone. - Kinetics and catalysis, v. 40, No. 3, p. 1-9, 1999. (In Russian)

    Nezval, E.I. The statistical characteristics of UV-radiation incidence in Moscow from 1969-1992 data. - Meteorologia i Gidrologia, No. 8, p. 64-71, 1996. (In Russian)

    Popovicheva, O.B., Starik, A.M., Favorsky, O.N. The effect of aviation on the atmosphere. The problems of and prospects for investigations. - Preprint OIVTAN, No. 8-427, Moscow, 79 p., 1998 (In Russian)

    Saveliev, A.M., Starik, A.M., Titova, N.S. Investigating the dynamics of the formation of ecologically hazardous gases in gas-turbine engine parts. - High Temperature, v. 37, No. 3, 1999. (In Russian)

    Solomonov, S.B., Kropotkina, E. P., Lukin, A.N. et al. Changes in the ozone layer over Moscow Region from observations at millimeter wavelengths. - Bulletin of Lebedev Physics Institute, RAS, No. 1, p. 23-27, 1998. (In Russian)

    Starik, A.M., Taranov, O.V. On the kinetics of ozone-forming processes in the middle atmosphere as influenced by radiation with wavelength 1.27 mcm and 762 nm. Chemical Physics, v. 18, No. 3, 1999. (In Russian)

    Starik, A.M., Titova, N.S. Peculiarities of the non-equilibrium processes of nitrogen oxide formation at the rear of strong shock waves in the air. - Izvestia RAN, Liquid and gas mechanics, No. 1, 1999. (In Russian)

    Zuev, V.V., Smirnov, S.V., Marichev, V.N., Grishaev, M.V. Results of optical monitoring of the ozonosphere at Siberian lidar station using combine exerimental approach. - Optica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 10, No. 10, p. 1170-1178, 1997. (In Russian)

    Zvyagintsev, A.M., Kruchenitsky, G.M. On the empirical model of ozone concentration near Moscow (Dolgoprudny) - Izvestia RAN, Physica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 32, No. 1, p. 96-100, 1996a. (In Russian)

    Zvyagintsev, A.M., Kruchenitsky, G.M. On the relations of total ozone in the middle latitudes of Northern Hemisphere with the North Atlantic Oscillation. - Meteorologia i Gidrologia, No. 7, p. 72-77, 1996b. (In Russian)

    Zvyagintsev, A.M., Kruchenitsky, G.M. On the variability of surface ozone concentration in the suburbs of Moscow and its relation with weather parameters. - Optica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 9, No. 9, p. 1267-1271, 1996c. (In Russian)

    Zvyagintsev, A.M., Kruchenitsky, G.M. On space-and-time relations of surface ozone concentration in Europe. - Izvestia RAN. Physica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 33, No. 1, p. 104-113, 1997a. (In Russian)

    Zvyagintsev, A.M., Kruchenitsky, G.M. On the estimates of total ozone trends in Europe and their relations with changes in the general atmospheric circulation. - Optica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 10, No. 9, p. 1045-1052, 1997b. (In Russian)

    Zvyagintsev, A.M., Kruchenitsky, G.M. On the relation of the long-term variability of surface ozone concentration with solar activity and characteristics of the general atmospheric circulation based on the data from European stations. - Optica Atmosphery i Oceana, v. 12, No. 1, 1999. (In Russian)

    Zvyagintsev, A.M. Kruchenitsky, G.M., Perov, S.P. Space-and-time variability of the Earth's ozone layer and "UV- hazard". - Atlas of time variations of natural, anthropogenic, and social processes. Vol. 2. Cyclic dynamics in nature and society. Ed.: Alexandrov, S.I. and Gamburtsev, A.G., Moscow, p. 282-291, 1998. (In Russian)


    The Authors: Albert A. Chernikov <>, Yury A. Borisov <>, Grigory M. Kruchenitsky <>, Stanislav P. Perov <>, Anatoly M. Zvyagintsev <>, all - Central Aerological Observatory, Dolgoprudny;

    Vladimir N. Aref'ev <>, Science and Production Association "Typhoon" of Roshydromet, Obninsk;

    Nikolay I. Beloglasov <>, the Polar Geophysical Institute, RAS, Apatity;

    Alexandr V. Belyavsky <>, Ukrainian Reseach Institute for Hydrometeorology, Kiev;

    Nataly Ye. Chubarova <>, the Lomonosov Moscow State Univercity, Moscow;

    Nikolay F. Elansky <> Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS, Moscow;

    Gennady P. Gushchin, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory of Roshydromet, St. Peterburg;

    Igor K. Larin, the Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics, RAS, Moscow;

    Sergey V. Solomonov <>, Lebedev Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow;

    Alexandr M. Starik <> Baranov Central Institute of Aircraft Instrument Making;

    Vladimir V. Zuev <> Institute of Optics of Atmosphere of the RAS, Tomsk.




    During 1995-1999 russian scientists used actively the cooperation with partners from Europe and United States inside different scientific projects. We must make a focus to several topics which contain: Atmospheric wave studies, QBO effects in the Middle Atmosphere, and the Response of the Middle Atmosphere to different cosmic influences.

    I. Atmospheric Waves.

    UARS data collection (UARS and UKMO gridded data) was used /1,2/ to investigate planetary wave structure on base of statistical analysis and 2-D modelling. UKMO gridded data of the geopotential heights, temperature, zonal and meridional wind were analysed from troposphere to 50 km level. Temperature data (ISAMS instrument) and ozone data (MLS instrument) were used to study periodical components between 100 and 0.01 mb for different zonal wave nimbers. The results of this study have revealed the character periods of oscillations near by 5-7, 9-12, and 20 days. Short periods 92-3 (days) ware found near mesospheric levels only. 2-D numerical model for planetary waves was used to investigate the possibility of its penetration from troposphere to mesosphere and its posible influence on mean zonal flow. The results of calculations demonstrate resonant response of the middle atmosphere for the periods of waves which correspond to data analysis results. There were no short-period resonant response in 2-D model runs. The numerical modelling have shown also /3/ the possibility of such resonant response to 27-days UV variability due to peridical heating inside ozone layer. The lidar data were used also /4/ to study periodical components in the mesosphere.

    Observationsof the horizontal wind field over the South pole were made during 1995 using a meteor radar /5,6,7,8/. Tese data have revealed the presense of a rich spectrum waves over the South pole with a distinct annual occurence. Included in this spectrum are long-period waves , whose periods than one solar day, which propagating eastward. The waves exhibit a distinct seasonal occurence where the envelope of wave periods decreases from a period of 10 days near the winter solstice and progresses towards a period meridional gradient of quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity has revealed a region in the high-latitude upper mesosphere which could support an instability and serve periods over the South pole. These results are consistent with hypothesis that the observed eastward long-period waves are generated by an instability over polar upper mesosphere. However, given the limited data set it was not real to rule out a stratospheric source. Embedded in this spectrum of eastward propagating waves during the austral winter are a number of distinct wave events. Eight such wave have been identified and localized using a constant-Q filter bank. The periods of these wave events ranges from 1.7 to 9.8 days and all exist for at least 3 wave periods. Least squares analysis has revealed that a number of these events are inconsistent with a wave propagating zonally around the geographic pole and could be related to waves propagating around a dynamical pole which is offset from the geographic pole. Additionally, one event which was observed appears to be a standing oscillation.

    The non-lenear mechanism of gravity wave generation by meteorological motions in the atmosphere was studied in /9, 10, 11, 12/. The mechanism of such generation of internal gravity waves (IGW) by mesoscale turbulence in the troposphere was cosidered on base of the equations which describe the generation of waves by hydrodynamic sources of momentum, heat and mass. Calculations of amplitudes, wave energy fluxes, turbulent viscosities, and accelarations of the mean flow caused by IGWs generated in the troposphere are made. The mean wind increases both the effectiveness of generation and dissipation of of IGWs propagating in the direction of the wind. Competition of both effects may lead to the dominance of IGWs propagating upstream at long distances from tropospheric wave sources, and to the formation of eastward wave accelarations in summer and westward accelarations in winter mesopause.

    II. QBO Effects

    Based on monthly ozone data from December to March 1957-1995 for nine stations in the Northern Europe the influence of the 11-year solar cycle on the variability of the Ozone/Equatorial QBO relationship was investigated /13, 14/. The high connection was founf for February for the west phase of QBO (positive) and east phase (negative). The obtained correlations are much stronger for the extremal valuse of solar activity.

    Long-term monthly mean series of total ozone from ground based measurements and the velocity of equatorial strotospheric wins were analysed with the method of wavelet tranform analysis to detect possible long-term variations in interannual quasi-periocities /15/. Results of analysis have shown that the period of QBO oscillations in total ozone and equatorial wind changes with quasi-decadal cycle in rage 2-2.5 years and has a different phase in different hemispheres. Possible conceptual mechanism was cosidered: TO is effected by solar activity directly, due to the changes in atmospheric dynamics caused by transitions between the regimes of the stratospheric QBO.

    Long-term variability of total ozone non-zonal structure was discovered /16/ in the region around South pole. Such variability looks like QBO, but has no direct correlation with zonal wind in the equatorial region. Fist zonal harmonic in total ozone for October during 1979-1994 (TOMS data base) has a very large amplitude (around 100 Dobson unuts) for single years and practically equals zero between the maximums. Two-yeyrs regularity are interrupted near by maximums of solar activity.

    III Cosmic Influence on the Middle Atmsphere

    Different statistical methods were used to invesigate ozone response to solar activity and cosmic ray variations / 17, 18, 19, 20/. Some investigations were realised using TOMS data collection and ground based observations of total ozone. Specific regions (like Murmansk and Siberia) in Russia has been taken into account for such studies. The results of statistical analysis has revealed 11-year solar response which depends on latitude and sometimes the region used for analysis. It was found that total ozone has a clear response to strong solar proton events. This effects (negative at high latitudes) has a good photochemical explanation and possible caused by edditional amount of NOX components. However, a sign of such response at lower latitudes is positive in contrast to the photochemical theory and needs another kind of physical interpretation. Photochemical models were used to stuty the effects of solar proton events on ozone /21, 22/. Such model calculations demonstrate rather long-term response of ozone due to the long life-time of NOX species in the stratosphere.


    1. Krivolutsky, A.A., and B.M. Kiryushov, Transient planetary waves in the mesosphere region: UARS data analysis and 2-D model runs. Earth, Planet and Space (in press).

    2. Krivolutsky A.A., B.M. Kiryushov, T.Yu. Vyushkova, and D. Pancheva, Large-scale dynamic and composition disturbances in the mesosphere region caused by transient planetary waves: 2-D modelling and UARS data analysis. Adv. in Space Res. (in press).

    3. Krivolutsky A.A., and Kiryushov, Contribution of non-zonal component of ozone distribution in resonant excitation of atmospheric waves. Atmos. Oceanic Phys., Izv. Russian Acad. Sci., vol. 31, 1, 151-156, 1995.

    4. Krivolutsky A.A., and M.-L.Chanin, Resonant transient atmospheric waves- a possible mechanism of connection between lower atmosphere, stratosphere and mesosphere. Adv. in Space Res., vol. 20, 6, 1227-1231, 1997.

    5. Forbes, J.M., N.A. Makarov, and Y.I. Portnyagin. First results from the meteor radar at South Pole: 12-hour oscillation with zonal wave number one. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 3247, 1995.

    6.Portnyagin Y.I., J. M. Forbes, and N. A. Makarov, Unusual characteristics of the lower thermosphere prevailing winds at South Pole. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 81, 1997a.

    7. Portnyagin Y. I., J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, E.G. Merzlyakov, and S. E. Palo, The summertime 12-hour wind oscillation with zonal wave number s=1 in the lower thermosphere over South Pole. Ann. Geophysicae, 1997b.

    8. Palo S. E., Y.I. Portnyagin, J. M. Forbes, N.A. Makarov, and E. G. Merzlyakov, Transient eastward-propagating long-period waves observed over the South Pole. Ann. Geophysicae, 16, 1486-1500, 1998.

    9. Medvedev A. S., and N. M. Gavrilov, The nonlinear mechanism of gravity wave generation by meteorological motions in the atmosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 57, 1221-1231, 1995.

    10. Medvedev, A. S., and G. P. Klaassen, Vertical evolution of gravity wave spectra and the parameterization of associated wave drag, J. Geophys. Res., 100 (D12), 25, 841-853, 1995.

    11. Gavrilov N. M., S. Fukao, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, M. D. Yamanaka, and M. Yamamoto, On the influence of the mean wind on the anisotropy of internal gravity waves in the middle atmosphere, Ann. Geophysicae, 13, 1355-1356, 1995.

    12. Gavrilov N. M., S. Fukao, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, M.D. Yamanaka, and Yamamoto, Statistical analysis of gravity waves observed with the MU radar in the middle atmosphere: Method and general characteristics. J. Geophys. Res., 101(D23), 29511-29521, 1996.

    13. Soukharev B. E., The interannual variability of temperature in the polar stratosphere during the winter: the influence of QBO phase and an 11-year solar cycle. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 59, N5, 469-477, 1997.

    14. Soukharev B.E., Sunspot cycle, the QBO, and the total ozone over North-Eastern Europe: a connection through the dynamics of stratospheric circulation. Ann. Geophysicae, vol. 15, 12, 1597-1603, 1997.

    15. Soukharev B.E., and I.V. Gorodetskaya, On the joint solar/QBO effect on the ozone over Northern Europe in wintertime. Ann. Geophysicae, Supp. ,vol. 16, 1997.

    16. Krivolutsky A.A., and P.N. Vargin, QBO Interaction between non-zonal structure of ozone and its content over polar regions, “Solar activity effects on the middle atmosphere. Second Workshop, Pragure, 1997.

    17. Krivolutsky A. A., Global structure of ozone response to solar and galactic cosmic ray influence. Adv. In Space Res. (accepted).

    18. Kazimirovsky E. S., A. Yu. Belinskaya and G.K. Matafonov, The possible response of the total ozone content on the solar and geomagnetic activity, Adv. In Space Res. (accepted).

    19. Mikhalev A. V., M. A. Chernigovskaya, A. B. Beletsky and E.S. Kazimirovsky, Variations of the ground-measured solar ultraviolet radiation during the solar eclipse on March 9, 1997.

    Adv. In Space Res. (accepted).

    20. Martin I., T. Toroshelidze, A. Alves, G. Bazilevskaya, M.G.S. Mello, A. Gusev, G. Pugacheva, P. Pokrevsky, The solar cycle and cosmic ray particles influence on stratospheric ozone variations. Adv. In Soace Res. (accepted).

    21. Krivolutsky A.A., A.A. Kuminov, and A. I. Repnev, Ozone response after solar proton event in November 1997. Geomag. i Aeronomie (in press).

    22. Krivolutsky A. A., A. A. Kuminov, and A. I. Repnev, Numerical modelling of NOX production influence by GCR in presence of aerosol. Proceedings of Int. Conference for Physics of Atmospheric Aerosol, Moscow, 12-17 April 1999, 187-188.



    N.V. Kabanov, National Commission Chairman, E.I. Nezval

    Major results of scientific research conducted during 1995 - 1998 are as follows:

    1. Detailed studies were conducted of the atmospheric aerosol optical thickness variability of the atmosphere for many years t a for wave length l = 550 nm determined from direct solar radiation measurements in Moscow. Values t a were calculated by similar technique for 153 actinometric stations of the former Soviet Union. Studies were carried out of its spatial and temporal variability, turbidity of the atmosphere caused by aerosols in industrial cities was estimated, the influence was analyzed of processes contributing to purifying the atmosphere from aerosols.
    2. From measurements data of many years (1980 - 1994) with cloudless sky obtained by MO MGU, the dependence was studied of disperse and total solar radiation as well as of correlation of direct and disperse radiation in various parts of the spectrum and natural illumination with cloudless sky from the height of the Sun and aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere. Empirical correlation was obtained. The influence of the volcano Pinatubo eruption on the radiation characteristics of the atmosphere was considered.
    3. By the example of combined experiment carried out at Zvenigorod station of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS in 1994, the influence of cloudiness on solar radiation in various parts of spectrum was studied. Statistical characteristics were obtained of solar radiation transmission through an unbroken cloud cover of various forms and their combinations. Optical thickness of clouds was determined. The correlation was established between radiation transmission and cloud amount.
    4. By observation data of 10 years obtained in Moscow in 1981 - 1990 the influence was considered of lower layer broken cloud cover on the transmission of total ultraviolet radiation with l Ј 380 nm. A good agreement was obtained with data on UV radiation transmission modeling through broken cloud cover with the use of Monte Carlo technique. Optical cloud thickness was studied from data on total integral and UV radiation with l Ј 380 nm obtained in Moscow for 25 years (1971 - 1995).

    5. Semi-empirical model for calculation of total UV radiation flows with l Ј 380 nm and erythematous radiation was elaborated on the basis of quantitative relations between radiation and major radiation parameters: the total content of ozone, aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphete, and the amount and optical thickness of clouds. The variability of erythematous radiation of warm periods during 1968 - 1997 was restored.
    6. On the basis of solar radiation modeling data obtained by Monte Carlo technique in the conditions of broken cloudiness and measurements data, marked spectral differences were revealed in the solar radiation transmission through cloudiness even within UV spectrum.

      A satisfactory agreement was obtained between UVR surface measurements data and calculations results based on the AVHRR/NOAA satellite data for lower values of albedo.

      On the basis of measurements done by MO MGU the technique was elaborated of estimation of combined effect of ozone, aerosol turbidity of the atmosphere, and cloudiness parameters (the number and optical thickness) on observed interannual UVR variation. UVR satellite measurements data (TOMS) were validated by surface measurements data in MO MGU during 1979 - 1992.

    7. A comparison was drawn between measured values of total photosynthetic active radiation (PhAR) with clear sky and mathematical stimulation data with various heights of the Sun and various optical conditions of the atmosphere. The influence of the atmosphere transparency, height of the Sun, and the number of clouds on the values of light equivalents of PhAR and integral radiation was analyzed.
    8. Statistical characteristics were obtained of monthly and annual total constituents of radiation balance for 40 years (1958 - 1997) and for a period of 30 years (1961 - 1990) recommended by WMO for calculating climate standards. Statistical characteristics of UVR arrival in Moscow were obtained from data of 1968 - 1992. The estimate were made of statistical characteristics of monthly and annual sums of the total and disperse PhAR and natural illumination of the earth surface.
    9. Estimation was made of the trends of integral solar radiation with clear sky (1955 - 1997) and with average cloudiness (1958 - 1997) as well as of atmosphere transparency, duration of the Sun radiance, general and lower cloudiness amount, and recurrence of the major groups of typical synoptic processes for the European area of the former Soviet Union defined according to the classification of L.V. Klimenko.


    1. Abakumova G.M., Gorbarenko E.V., Nezval E.I. , Shilovtseva O.A. The relation between direct and disperse Solar radiation in different parts of the spectrum by data of many years obtained by the MGU Meteorological Observatory. Meteorologia i hidrologia, 1996, No. 8, pp. 53 - 62.
    2. Abakumova G.M., Gorbarenko E.V., Nezval E.I., Shilovtseva O.A. The variability of solar radiaton in different parts of the spectrum and natural illumination of the Earth's surface with clear sky. Meteorologia i hidrologia, 1999, No. 3, pp. 49 - 58.
    3. Abakumova G.M., Gorbarenko E.V., Izakova O.M., Nezval E.I., Rozental V.A., Chubarova N. E., Shilovtseva O.A. The transmission of total solar radiation in optical thickness of the clouds of low layer by data of Zvenigorod experiment in 1994. Izv. RAN, Fizika atmosfery i okeana, 1998, V. 34, No 1, pp. 134 - 140.
    4. Abakumova G.M., Gorbarenko E.V., Izakova O.M., Nezval E.I., Chubarova N.E., Shilovtseva O.A. The dependence of total radiation in different parts of the spectrum from the number of general cloudiness. Izv. RAN, Fizika atmosfery i okeana, 1998, V. 34, No. 1, pp. 141 - 144.
    5. Geogdzhaev I.V., Kondranin T.V., Rublev A.N., Chubarova N.E. Modeling of UV radiation transfer through broken cloudiness and the comparison of calculations with measurements data. Izv. RAN, Fizika atmosfery i okeana, 1997, V. 33, No. 5, pp. 680 - 686.
    6. Gorbarenko E.V. Aerosol constituent of the optical thickness of the atmosphere as a characteristic of anthropogenic pollution of the air above industrial centers. Meteorologia i hidrologia, 1997, No. 3, pp. 12 - 18.
    7. Gorbarenko E.V. Spatial and temporal variability of aerosol constituent of the optical thickness of the atmosphere in the territory of the USSR. Meteorologia i hidrologia, 1997, No. 5, pp. 36 - 44.
    8. Gorbarenko E.V., Eremina I.D. The role of precipitation in the process of aerosol removal from the atmosphere. Optika atmosfery i okeana. Tomsk, 1998, V. 11, No. 5.
    9. Evnevich T.V., Shilovtseva O.A. Light equivalents of the photosynthetic active and integral solar radiation by data of meteorological observatory. Meteorologia i hidrologia, 1997, No. 7, pp. 14 - 23.
    10. The climate, weather, and ecology of Moscow. Ed. Dr. of Sci. F. Ya. Klinova. S.-P., Hidrometeoizdat, 1995, 438 p.
    11. Nezval E.I. Statistical characteristics of UV radiation arrival in Moscow by data of 1968 - 1992. Meteorologia i hidrologia, 1996, No. 8, pp. 64 - 71.
    12. Rozental V.A., Chubarova N.E., Izakova O.M., Sharaev G.A. Monitoring of radiation flows with the use of facilities and software combination SUN. Optika atmosfery i okeana. Tomsk. 1999, V. 12, No. 1.
    13. Feigelson E.M., Shilovtseva O.V. Visible solar radiation coming to the earth surface with clear sky. Izv. RAN, Fizika atmosfery i okeana, 1998, V. 34, No. 1, pp. 151 - 152.
    14. Chubarova N.E. Ultraviolet radiation in broken cloudiness by data of ground observations of many years. Izv. RAN, Fizika atmosfery i okeana, 1998, V. 34, No. 1, pp. 145 - 150.
    15. Abakumova G.M., Feigelson E.M., Russak V., Stadnik V.V. Evaluation of long-term changes in radiation, cloudiness and surface temperature on the territory of the former Soviet Union. Journal of climate, 1996, V. 9, pp. 1319 - 1327.
    16. Chubarova N.Ye. Variability of cloud optical thickness based on ground solar irradiance records in Moscow for 25 years. IRS'96 Current problems in Atmospheric Radiation Smith and Stamnes (Eds) A Deepak Publishing 1997, Hampton, Virginia USA, pp. 214 - 217.
    17. Chubarova N. Ye. Ozone influence upon UV radiation and possible compensation of its impact by other atmospheric factors. In WCRP-99 WMO/TD No 814, 1997, V. 2 "Stratospheric processes and their role in climate (SPARC), pp. 521 - 524.
    18. Chubarova N. Ye., Krotkov N.A., Geogdzhaev I.V., Kondranin T.V., Khatattov V.U. Spectral UV irradiance: the effects of ozone, cloudiness and surface albedo. IRS'96 Current problems in Atmospheric radiation Smith and Stamnes (Eds) a Deepak Publishing 1997, Hampton, Virginia USA, pp. 881 - 885.
    19. Chubarova N.Ye., Nezval Ye.I. Ozone. Aerosol and cloudiness impacts on biologically effective radiation less 380 nm. - IRS'96 Current problems in Atmospheric radiation Amith and Stamnes(Eds) A Deepak Publishing 1997, Hampton, Virginia USA, pp. 886 - 889.
    20. Gorbarenko E.V. Spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric aerosol optical thickness on the territory of the former Soviet Union. IRS'96 Current problems in atmospheric Radiation Smith and Stamnes(Eds) A Deepak Publishing 1997, Hampton, Virginia USA, pp. 774 - 777.
    21. Yevnevich T.V., Shilovtseva O.A. Luminous efficacy of solar integral and photosynthetically active radiation by natural measurements of Moscow state University Meteorological Observatory. IRS'96 Current problems in Atmospheric Radiation Smith and Stamnes(Eds)A Deepak Publishing 1997, Hampton, Virginia USA, pp. 782-785.



    Shvats Ya. M. and V.N. Morozov

    Atmospheric electric research in Russia covers wide range of problems. Among them are surface layer electricity including the employment of data for magnetospheric investigations, mesosphere electric field, global electric circuit (GEC), cloud electricity, thunderstorm discharge physics, lightning effect, lightning detection, earthquake atmospheric electric effects, sensors for atmospheric electricity measurements.

    Surface layer electricity. Measurements of atmospheric electric field potential gradient V’ and polar air electric conductivities p are being continued at several meteorological stations of the Russia Hydrometeorological Service (RHS). Special data center on the surface layer atmospheric electricity (SDC/AE) operates in A.I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory Research Center for Atmospheric Remote Sounding (MGO RC ARS). SDC/AE collects, processes and archives data of these measurements. It provides a safety of the archive and access to it, including archive of the WDC/AE. The data of SDC/AE and WDC/AE were analyzed and generalized [Klimin,Shvarts, 1996, Khlebnikova, Rusina, Shvarts, 1996, Климин, Шварц, 1996]. First, it was demonstrated that the trends of the total electric conductivity were negative at all observatories of the globe in which these measurements were made over our century. Second, it was shown that the averaging of AE observation data can serve for revealing global processes that cover a substantial area of the globe, for example, the increase in Aitken nuclei concentration at the surface layer. Third, it was revealed that the correlation exists between the air electrical conductivity (AC) and the other parameters of the background air pollution, this confirmed the expediency of AC-characteristics for assessment of the background state of the atmosphere. And finally, it was shown that the multivariate statistical analysis should be considered as independent research accompanying background air pollution monitoring. Recent investigations [Shvarts, Petrenko, Schcukin, 1999] shows a modest rise of l at Irkutsk and Voeikovo beginning with the early nineties. It is supposed that this effect can be explained mainly by a decrease of an emission of aerosol-formed gases into the atmosphere due to a drop of the industrial production at the regions where the observatories are placed.

    Results of aeroelectrical measurements in the surface layer at Geophysical Observatory “Borok” and their interpretation were presented in the papers [ Anisimov a.o., 1996, Anisimov a.o., 1997, Anisimov a.o. 1999, Бакастов С.С., 1997]. The variations of the surface layer electrical characteristics and the factors determining variations were investigated [Petrov, Petrova, Panchishkina, 1996, 1999].

    New data were presented [Соколенко, 1997], which confirmed a possibility of the use of electrical conductivity data for a shorttime prediction of fog.

    Model investigations of the electric structure of the electrode turbulent surface layer were undertaken by V.N. Morozov and G.V. Kupovykh. Models and results of calculations of the altitude distribution of V’, p and space charge density for different stratification and conditions ( aerosol particles and ion formation) into layer are presented in set of the publications, for example, [Морозов, 1996, Морозов, Куповых, Шварц, 1999].

    Authors [Борисенков и др, 1998] considered a role of atmospheric electric field variations in an estimation of meteotropic reactions of sanatorium patients which had deseases of the heart - vascular system.

    Ions. Problems of natural atmospheric ions as electrostatic systems was considered in the paper [Klingo, 1999]. The ion production in the atmosphere at the altitudes of 7-30 km was discussed [Ermakov a.o., 1996]. It was found a linear relationship between the ion formation intensity and the small ion concentration.

    Global electrical circuit. New model investigations of GEC were undertaken by V.N. Morozov [Морозов, 1996]. The nonstationary mathematical problem of the relaxation of the atmosphere electrical stationary state after swithing on thunderstorm current sources was solved. Electric field strength above a thunderstorm cloud after a lightning was estimated. It was demonstrated that the cloud field may be sufficient for the occurence of discharge processes over thunderstorm instantaneously after a cloud - ground lightning [Morozov, 1999]. Much of the problems [Морозов, 1996] were solved by analitical methods with the proviso that  has exponential profile and is time independent. The problem of a calculation of the vertical atmospheric electric field variations was formulated in the papers [Dmitriev E.M., Anisimov S.V., 1996, Дмитриев Э.М., 1998] for the atmosphere with an arbitrary conductivity profile under fair weather condition. The correct difference scheme of the first order was proposed. Numerical solutions were presented. Author [Kupovykh, 1990] considers a possibilities to obtain the information about ionospheric potential from ground atmospheric electricity data.

    A problem of an electric field generation in the Earth’s atmosphere by turbulent and wave motions similar to magnetohydrodynamic dynamo was presented in the paper [Мареев, Трахтенгерц, 1996]. In the papers [Bespalov, Chugunov, Davydenko, 1996, Беспалов, Чугунов, 1997] a model of the quasi-stationary global electric circuit was presented in which the atmospheric electric field arises from the rotation of the planetary plasma envelope with consideration for the altitude - dependent A new approach to the description of global electric processes was presented in the paper [Davydenko, Bespalov, 1999]. It was shown that the latitude - dependence of  leads to significant redistribution of electric potential in the lower atmosphere.

    Strengthening the atmospheric electric field by atmospheric aerosol layers was discussed [Морозов, 1997].

    Modern physico-mathematical models of the atmospheric electric field were reviewed [Овчаренко, Донченко, 1997].

    Mesospheric electric field. A possible mechanism for the generation of large vertical electric fields which observed in the mesosphere was discussed [Zadorozhny, 1999].

    Cloud electricity. Investigations of electric fields in convective clouds are continuing at A.I.Voeikov MGO [Sinkevich a.o., 1999]. Onset of electrification in convective clouds was discussed [Kashleva, Mikhailovsky, 1996]. The laboratory experiments were conducted at MGO in which the influence of great electrical fields on fog microstructure was studied [Afanasev a.o., 1996]. Electric and microphysic properties of thunderclouds are studying at the Turgosh base of A.I.Voeikov MGO RC ARS with active-passive multiwave radar system [Stasenko a.o., 1996]. A transformation of convective clouds to thunderclouds was considered in the paper [Adjiev a.o., 1999]. Different radars are much used in thunderstorm investigations [Galperin, Stepanenko, Frolov, 1996, Stepanenko, 1996, Stepanenko,1999]. Model investigations of cloud electrification are continuing. The numerical nonstationary model of convective clouds was developed [Веремей, 1999]. Electric effects took into account in this model. M.V. Gurovich and L.V. Kashleva developed three-dimensional model of a convective cloud in which the system of hydrodynamic and kinetic equations was solved. This made possible to account for all contact interactions of cloud hydrometeors which gave birth to the cloud electrification. A fractal model of a thundercloud was developed. It describes dynamics of electrical charges in a thunderstorm cloud on its mature stage [Иудин, Трахтенгерц, 1998]. A model of a thundercloud was made in which the cloud electrical field was set up by a stream instability of rain particle charges [Каладзе, Канделаки и др., 1996]. The application of the turbulent electric dynamo theory to the thunderstorm electrification problem was considered in the paper [Mareev, 1999]. A selective ion charging of water drops in thunderstorms have aroused interest again [Sorokin, 1999].

    Lightnings. A conception for the RF national lightning detection network was proposed [Снегуров, 1997]. This conception was based on the use of the home direction and range lightning finder. It was approved by the Commission on instruments and methods of the RHS in 1994. The lightning detection network is described [Бочковский и др., 1997]. It consists of some identical home direction finders. This network is now in operation. Authors [Orlov, Temnikov, 1999, Temnikov, Orlov,Syssoev, 1999] studied a formation of discharges into charged aerosol clouds and frequency spectrum of the discharges. The models of the leader breakdown in the air were discussed [Ivanovskiy, 1996, 1999]. The design model of a stepped leader for negative lightning was presented in the paper [Илларионова, Ларионов, 1997]. Radar investigations of lightnings were made under supervision of E.I.Dubovoy [Dubovoy, 1996, Дубовой, 1997, Михайлов, Дубовой, 1997]. A new mechanism of thunderstorm electricity and lightning formation was given [Ermakov, Stozhkov, 1999], the essential role was assigned to cosmic rays. An impact of lightning discharge on stratospheric ozone was studied [Klumov, 1999]. Lightning can cause local (typical radial scales are of 100 m) and transient (typical time scales of few minutes) loss of ozone. Authors [Amirov, Bychkov, 1999] investigated problems of ball lightning (BL) by statistical analyses of computer data base of 1600 BL. BL can be heterogeneous formation with movable framework and glowing from surface.

    Three papers of late L. G. Makhotkin were published [Махоткин 1999 a,b,c]. Useful generalizations to the statistics of atmospheric radionoise, a development and the use of lightning meters, a thunderstorm activity are given in these papers.

    Earthquakes. Anomalous changes of the surface layer electrical characteristics was reviewied in [Руленко, в печати].

    Sensors. New sensors were designed for use as a small balloon payload [Struminsky, 1999 a,b]. These are: the string V’-meter and p-meter.

    A review of research in atmospheric electricity at A.I.Voeikov MGO over one hundred fifty years is presented [Морозов, Снегуров, Шварц, в печати].



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    Afanasev D.A., Dovgalyuk Yu.A., Pershina T.A., Ponomarev Yu.A., Sinkevich A.A., Stepanenko V.D., (1996). The influence of great electric fields on fog microstructure (laboratory experiment). In: Proceedings......1996.

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    Anisimov S.V., Bakastov S.S., Mareev E.A., Borovkov Yu.E. , (1996). The evolution of electric field structure in the surface atmospheric layer. In: Proceedings......1996.

    Anisimov S.V., Bakastov S.S., Borovkov Yu.E., Dmitriev E.M., Anisimova E.V., (1997). Geomagnetic and aeroelectric measurements at Geophysical observatory “Borok” in Russia. Abstracts 8th Scientific Assambley of IAGA with ICMA and STP Symposia. Uppsala, Sweden, p. 458, 1997.

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