RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

 

NATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL COMMITTEE

 

 

NATIONAL REPORT

to the International Association of Meteorology

and Atmospheric Sciences

of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

1999 2002

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presented to the XXIII General Assembly

of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

 

 

 

Moscow 2003

 

 

This report of the Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Section (MASS) of the Russian National Geophysical Committee presents information on atmospheric research in 1999-2002 in Russia. It is based on reports of 10 National Commissions:

1.      Atmospheric Chemistry (Chairman I.K. Larin),

2.      Atmospheric Electricity (Chairman V.N. Stasenko),

3.      Atmospheric Ozone (Chairman N.F. Elansky),

4.      Climate (Chairman I.I. Mokhov),

5.      Dynamic Meteorology (Chairman M.V. Kurgansky),

6.      Meteorology of Middle Atmosphere (Chairman A.A. Krivolutsky),

7.      Physics of Clouds and Precipitation (Chairman A.A. Chernikov),

8.      Planetary Atmospheres (Chairman O.I. Korablev),

9.      Polar Meteorology (Chairman A.I. Danilov),

10.    Radiation (Chairman Yu.M. Timofeyev).

 

 

 

Editors:

RAS Corresponding Member Igor I. Mokhov (MASS Chairman)

Dr. Alexey A. Krivolutsky (MASS Scientific Secretary)

 

@ National Geophysical Committee RAS, 2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

 

1.      Atmospheric Chemistry (by I.K. Larin)

2.      Atmospheric Electricity (by V.N. Stasenko)

3.      Atmospheric Ozone (by N.F. Elansky)

4.      Climate (by I.I. Mokhov)

5.      Dynamic Meteorology (by M.V. Kurgansky and M.A. Tolstykh )

6.      Middle Atmosphere Meteorology (by A.A. Krivolutsky)

7.      Physics of Clouds and Precipitation (by A.A. Chernikov)

8.      Planetary Atmospheres (by O.I. Korablev)

9.      Polar Meteorology (by A.I. Danilov and V.E. Lagun)

10.    Radiation (by Yu.M. Timofeyev)

 

 

 

 

ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

 

I.K. Larin

 

Institute of Energy Problems and Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences,

Leninsky 38, Bld. 2, 117829 Moscow, Russia (ilarin@chph.ras.ru)

 

 

 

The works in the field of atmospheric chemistry which is carried out by the Russian scientists in this period, cover a wide circle of problems connected to processes, occurring in troposphere, stratosphere and higher layers of an atmosphere. These researches were done on a number of traditional directions, including laboratory study of atmospheric physico-chemical processes, theoretical analysis of atmospheric mechanisms, field observations and mathematical modeling. During this work a number of new important results of general scientific importance were received that allow better to understand processes and mechanisms working in the atmosphere and determining its properties. Basic the "applied" purpose of these researches consist in the analysis of mechanisms of influence of the antropogenic factors on properties of environment; thus the special attention was given to ozone layer and climate change, to processes of formation of acid rains, and also processes of pollution of air in urban areas.

The materials of the report are presented in sections " Chemistry of the troposphere", "Ozone layer and reasons of its change ", "Chemistry of climate and its change ", "Chemistry of urban areas", "Monitoring of the atmosphere", "Atmospheric modeling".

 

 

1. Chemistry of the troposphere

 

Last years the most important achievement in tropospheric chemistry are connected to study of heterogeneous processes playing a key role in formation of acid rains and, as has appeared, in depletion of the ozone layer.

The heterogeneous chemical reactions of sulfur dioxide oxidation in dropplets of tropospheric clouds were intensively studied last years in the Institute of energy problems of chemical physics RAS. The basic attention was concentrated on the study of dynamics and mechanism of liquid-phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide at the presence of ions of iron and manganese (acid rains). The fact of running of these katalitic reactions is connected with presence in their mechanism of a link of a chain branching. For dynamics of permanently developing reaction it is important what link of the iron ions cycle (F(III) F(II)) is limiting. Depending on it or a long - chain oxidation of sulfur dioxide either katalitic one is realized. Within the framework of these representations it was possible to explain the reasons of variety of the majority of "whims" of this reaction, not being stacked in frameworks of habitual representations about radical - chain transformations.

In addition it was were developed a box chemical model of tropospheric clouds, with taking into account of reactions of iron ions that allowed to reveal such features of liquid-phase oxidation of sulfur in real atmospheric conditions as initiation of the reaction by fluxes of radicals /2 from outside, absorption UV radiation and some others. It has been found, that in day time the iron ions in liqued phase provide fast conversion seized from a gas phase chemically inert radicals 2 in the very active ion - radical SO5-. The result of this conversion appears sharp (103 times) acceleration of the reaction in the atmosphere in comparison with that in laboratory conditionshis that results in growth of the rate of the atmospheric self-purificationof. The results mentioned above are presented in [1-13].

In connection with observable anomalies of ozone concentration in coastal sea zones for the first time in laboratory experiments (with use of a method of ESR with matrix isolation and mass - spectrometry) studies were carried out for the uptake of NO2, ClNO3 and NO3 radicals on crystallites such as NaCl, NaBr, MgCl2×6H2O and NaCl doped with MgCl2×6H2O crystalline hydrate under conditions of varying humidity and of reactant concentrations ranging between 1010 and 1014 cm-3. Based on experimental dependences obtained and an analysis of literature data, a model representation of the uptake initial step is proposed. The main outcome of the model is an analytical representation of the uptake probability in terms of some elementary parameters and the rate coefficients of elementary processes that determine the reversible adsorption and the elementary heterogeneous reactions. Based on a handling of experimental data by the proposed model, some elementary rate coefficients were evaluated, i.e. the desorption rate coefficients and the adsorption heats, the rate coefficients of elementary heterogeneous reactions and their activation energies. The model representation allows us to extrapolate the laboratory data to real tropospheric conditions. Results of these works are presented in [14-18].

The aerosol particles can not only give rise to ozonedepleting substances (as it was shown in [14-18]), but also can promote preservation of ozone layer through destraction of fluorine-, chlorine containing substances. It has been shown in [19] that the substances are destructive photosorbed on MgO, that confirms a hypothesis about the contribution of photoprocesses on the MgO surface into destruction halogenated carbohydrates in the troposphere.

It is known, that the charged particles can serve as nuclei of condensation under formation of aerosol particles. In this connection in [20, 21] the influence of cosmic radiation and highenergy protons on optical properties of the low atmosphere of middle and high latitudes caused by ionization under action of these factors has been investigated.

Connection between processes of aerosol and ozone formation in the low troposphere and solar activity has been analysed in [22].

In work [23] are summarized of systematic researches of a matrix of distribution of light by atmospheric air, which have allowed to establish principles of temporary variability of the optical and microphysical characteristics of erosol, to develop optical and microphysical models of aerosol, that has allowed to estimate radiation effects of these particles.

In conclusion of this part we shall note interesting results about influence of orographic effects on the ozone content in the troposphere and stratosphere

[24], and on the estimations of the contribution of lightnings in the formation of ozone and odd nitrogen in the troposphere [25].

 

2. Chemistry of ozone layer and reasons of its change

 

In this field the study of chemical reactions halogenous cycles of stratospheric ozone depletion has been proceeded. The significant attention was given to less investigated iodine cycle. In this connection it is possible to specify works, in which the rate constants of the reactions of IO radicals with ozone [26], with H2S, (CH3)2S and SO2 [27] and with radicals ClO [28] were measured, and also work [29], where the results of long-term research of atmospheric reactions of iodine containing components in the Institute of energy problems of chemical physics RAS were presented.

The influence of the antropogeneous factors on both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and the temperature of these areas was investigated in [30, 31], and influence of the natural factor - variations of solar radiation in 21 and 22 solar cycles - on the ozone content - in the work of the same authors [32]. The influence of other natural factors on a layer was analyzed in [33, 34].

The analysis of ozonospheric processes is carried out mainly with the help of atmospheric models of various complexity, that we shall discuss later. At the same time there are more simple methods and approaches, which can be used in the same purposes. So, in [35] the simple empirical method of an estimation of relative influence antropogeneous and natural factors on ozone layer was suggested. The method is based on the found before correlation of interannual anomalies of the total ozone contents with changes in the stratospheric moment of impulse and consists in construction of linear regression of these characteristics.

In [36] with the help of the four scenario of antropogeneous gases emissions over 2000-2100 (1, 2, 1, 2), developed by the Intergovernmental Pannel on Climate Change, and one-dimensional photochemical model of the middle atmosphere an increase in total ozone content for spring-summer months (March - August) has been estimated. It has been shown that the relative increase of the total ozone in 2000-2100 in comparison with 1990 can make from + 3,8 % (1) up to + 13,1 % (2) and appropriate reduction of intensity of biologically important UV-B radiation (wavelength range of 285-315 nm) makes from -5,0 % up to -15,9%. In view of rcovery of ozone layer in XXI century designed in assumption, that regulations of the Montreal protocol and its amendments will be carried out, the total relative change in atmospheric ozone in XXI century can make from + 9,2 % up to + 18,8 %, and appropriate reduction in intensity of UV-B radiation - from -11,6 % up to -21,9 %.

In conclusion of this part we shall underline, that in the Russian scientific literature during last years the rather sharp discussion about the reasons of ozone depletion continued. New "arguments" for the benefit of the natural factors have appeared, and the authors of some works even try to prove indemonstrable - that Antarctic ozone hole has natural origin. The part of such works is critically analyzed in [37], and others - in site http: // iklarin.narod.ru.

 

3. Chemistry of urban areas

 

The chemistry of urban areas represents an extremely complicated complex of physico-chemical interactions of the large number of various chemical compounds in gas, liquid and solid phases, which are emitted out in the atmosphere by transport, industrial enterprises and other objects of municipal economy. To understand consequences of such powerful antropogeneous influence on environment it is necessary to use mathematical models, which take into account first of all chemistry of the urban atmosphere. Let's specify in this connection two works, which answer this requirement. In [38] for the first time an inclusion of mathematical model in the geoinformation system has been is realized, that has allowed to solve a problem of the most complete information maintenance of model and its adaptation to simulated object (for conditions of lty). In [39] the empirical model of interaction of polluting antropogeneous pollutants of variuos origin is described, constructed on the basis of results of the mutual correlation analysis of long temporary series of concentration of aerosol, carbon oxide, nitrogen oxide and dioxide and other compounds with taking into account of mtparameters.

For development of the urban environment protection measures against antropogenic influence it is important to estimate a measure of this influence. So, in [40] the antropogeneous constituent of a daily variability of both gas and aerosol concentrations is investigated; in [41] the sources of emissions in the atmosphere benzpyrene and others polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates in industrial regions near lake Baikal are established and the dependence of intensity of the sources on fuel-energy technology, aluminium, building, petrochemical manufactures; in [42] the basic specific substances, emitted in the atmosphere by sources of an aluminium factory are considered.

Aerosol particles are the most typical pollutant of urban area. This question is considered in [43-45], and in the last work the influence of antropogeneous erosol on health is analysed.

In conclusion of this part we mention a work [46], where on the data long-term (1980-1999 ..) measurements of Meteorological observatory of the Moscow State University the temporary variability of atmospheric precipitation acidity is investigated; it has been shown, that there is an essential distinction in pH of rains and snow: in the warm period precipitation is more acid (average = 4,7) than in cold ( = 5,7), and essential change in precipitation acidity in Moscow for these years is not observed.

 

4. Chemistry of climate and its change

 

The role of chemistry in climate change is determined by that the atmospheric content of greenhouse gases (such, as 3, CH4, chlorofluorohydrocarbons and some others), and also content of aerosol particles is appreciably controled by atmospheric chemical and photochemical processes. On calculations of climatic effects with the help of mathematical models which are taking into account atmospheric chemistry, the "chemical" contribution remains unnoticed, because it does not calculated specially. At the same time analysis of this question seems to be very important by many reasons. In this connection we shall mark a work [47], in which the role of atmospheric chemical processes in climate change has been analyzed. In this work with help of photochemical model of the middle atmosphere, developed in the Institute of energy problems of chemical physics RAS, the direct and indirect effects caused by both a depletion and recovery of the stratospheric ozone, by increase in tropospheric ozone, and also additional increase in concentration of methane, hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons have been estimated. In the work four scenario of emission of greenhouse and other antropogeneous gases in 2000-2100, developed by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, have been used and for each scenario the relative total contribution of chemical processes in global warming in XXI century have been estimated. The forecast of change in global everage surface temperature in 2000-2100 with taking account the mentioned above chemical effects has been done in [48].

Reliability of the climatic forecast and maximum complete account of all climatic factors, including atmospheric chemistry, become today especially important in connection with a problem of expected global warming under action of antropogeneous factors. The role of these factors is considered in [31, 49-51].

The important indication of a possible global warming is the measurements of temperature trend. In this respect works [52-54] are especially interesting, because they information on negative trend of temperature at altitudes of 25-110 kms in the period 1955-1995, which makes 0,1- 0,9 K/yr for different layers in the specified range of heights.

In conclusion of this part we shall mention a work [55], where results of investigation of global climate in a context of the reports IPCC-2001 and National Academy of Sciences of USA are examined and some considerations about priorities of the further investigations of global climate and its changes are stated.

 

 

5. Atmospheric monitoring

 

From numerous and various results of atmospheric monitoring received for last four years, we first of all note results of works under the long-term programs. One of them is the project "Aerosols of Siberia", begun in 1991. During its performance the ground-based system of monitoring of atmospheric aerosols covering territory of Western and East Siberia with a distance between points of observations up to 1500 kms has been created. Besides the system of space monitoring is advanced. The important information on scales of fires in boreal forests of Siberia [56] is assembled, other important results are received, which partly presnted in [57-59].

Other large project is the international one "Troica", started in 1995. During performance of this project the near surface concentrations of O3, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, CH4, SF6 and some VOCs were measured in continental areas of Russia from Moscow up to Khabarovsks and from Kislovodsk up to Murmansks. The results of these investigations are submitted in special release of "Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics", 2001, 7 Supplement.

Large volume in-situ measurements has been done in Central Aerologic Observatory (C, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region). The regular measurements of both altitude distribution and total ozone in Siberia (in Salehard and in Yakutsk) both under the national programs and within the framework of the international projects have been carried out [60, 61] . The large complex of measurements have been done in Arctic Region [62 - 68] and Antarctic Region [69, 70].

Besides a regular in-sity measurements of atmospheric components have been proceeded at a number of Russian stations of monitoring - Siberian Lidar Station [71- 73], scientific station in Dolgoprudnyi [74], station in Voeikovo(near St.-Petersburg) [75], station at lake Issyk Kul' [76], station of Atmospheric Physics Institute of RAS in Zvenigorod (near Moscow) [77, 78], station in southeast part of lake Baikal [79] and station in area of Tomsk [80].

In conclusion of this part we mention work [81], in which the anomalies and trends of the ozone content in 1979-1992 have been analysed.

6. Mathematical modeling of atmospheric processes

 

Last years in Russia a number of new atmospheric models of a world level was created. Not discussing details, we list here most important achievements in this field.

In Central Aerologic Observatory the photochemical trajectory model for the low stratosphere has been created [82], which allow us to use in calculations thousand back (in time) trajectories for initial coordinates with account of chemical transformations for each trajectory. With help of this model, in particular, evolution of the ozone active components along trajectories having a place in Arctic Region and Antarctic Region has been calculated that has allowed us to advance in understanding of stratospheric ozone depletion mechanisms in spring time in these areas.

In Hydromet of Russia a model for the description of processes occurring in system "ground - vegetation - surface layer of the atmosphere" in frameworks of prognostic model of general circulation has been developed [83], and also a global spectral model of the atmosphere with a high vertical resolution for the upper troposphere, low and middle stratosphere is created [84].

Other achievements in the field of modeling are presented in works [85-89].

REFERENCES

1. Yermakov .N., zlov Yu.N., Purmal' .P.// Kinetika i Kataliz (rus.), 1999, V.40, 6, 132-149.

2. Yermakov A.N., Purmal A.P.// Proceedings of International Aerosol Conference, Karpov's Physico-Chemical Institute, Moscow, 2000, p.167.

3. Gershenson Yu., Yermakov .N., Purmal .P. // Chem. Phys. Reports, 2001, V. 19, p. 445-468.

4. Yermakov .N., Purmal' .P.// Kinetika i Kataliz (rus), 2001, V. 42, 3 . 313-326.

5. Pronchev G.B., Yermakov .N., robeinikova I.. //In: "Interaction of ions with surface" (rus.), 2001, Moscow, V.1, p.370-373.

6. Yermakov .N.,, Larin I.K., Ugarov A.A., Groznov I.N.//In Proceedings of the conference "Chemistry and Photochemistry of the Diozide Sulfur Oxidation in the Atmosphere" (rus.), Moscow, 2001, part II, p.56-57.

7. Yermakov A.N., Purmal A.P., "Manganese-catalyzed sulfite oxidation".//Program and Abstracts. Fifth Intern. Conf. Chem. Kinetics, July 16-20, 2001, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 164.

8. Yermakov A.N., Purmal A.P.// Khim. Fizika, 2002, V. 21, 1, p. 32-39.

9. Yermakov A.N., Purmal A.P.// Global atmospheric change and its impact on regional air quality, NATO Workshop, Irkutsk 2001, 2002, P.167-174.

10. Pronhev G.B., Korobeinikova I.A., Yermakov A.N. // European Journal of Mass spectrometry, 2002, V.8. 131-138.

11. Purmal A.P., Yermakov A.N., Popov V.N. // Advances and Prospects of Ecological Chemistry. Plenary Reports, 2002, p.27-35.

12. Yermakov A.N., Larin I.K., Ugarov A.A., Purmal A.P. // 2002, International Workshop, Effect of ionizing radiation on ecological situation of countries from Caucasian region and Caspian sea, Book of abstracts, 2002, P.25-27.

13. Yermakov A.N., Larin I.K., Purmal A.P., Ugarov A.A. // Khim. Fizika, 2002, V. 21, p.61-71.

14. E.V.Aparina, V.V.Zelenov, M.Yu.Gershenzon, S.D.Il'in, Yu.M.Gershenzon. //EC/EUROTRAC-2 "Chemical Mechanism Development", Proceedings, September 11-13, 2000, Lausanne, Book of Abstracts, 165-168.

15. Yu.M.Gershenzon, R.G.Remorov, M.Yu.Gershenzon, D.V.Shestakov, E.V.Aparina, V.V.Zelenov, L.T.Molina, M.J.Molina. // 5th Int. Conference on Chemical Kinetics, July 16-20, 2001, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. Book of Abstracts, 179-181.

16. V.V.Zelenov, E.V.Aparina, R.G.Remorov, S.D.Il'in, D.V.Shestakov, Yu.M.Gershenzon. //EC/EUROTRAC-2 "Transport and Chemical Transportation in the Troposphere", Proceedings, March 11-15, 2002, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Book of Abstracts, 46.

17. Vladislav V.Zelenov, Elena V.Aparina. //Global Atmospheric Change and its Impact on Regional Air Quality; Kluver Academic Publishers, Dordrecht / Boston / London. IV. Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2002, V.16, 173-179.

18. M.Yu.Gershenzon, V.M.Grigorieva, S.D.Il'in, R.G.Remorov, D.V.Shestakov, V.V.Zelenov, E.V.Aparina, Yu.M.Gershenzon. // Global Atmospheric Change and its Impact on Regional Air Quality; Kluver Academic Publishers, Dordrecht- Boston-London. IV. Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2002, V.16, 109-113.

19. Zakharchenko V.S., iseichuk .N., Parmon V.N. //ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2002, V.15, 05-06, 495-500.

20. Ivkev L.S., Khvorostovskii S.N. //ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), V. 13, 2000, 12, 1073-1080.

21. Ivkev L.S., Khvorostovskii S.N. //ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), V. 13, 2000, 12, 1081-1086.

22. rschinov .Yu., Bekan B.D., valevskii V.., Rasskazchikova .., Sklyadneva .., lmacheva G.N. // ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2002, V. 15, 12, 1056-1072.

23. Gorchakov G.I. // ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), V. 13, 2000, 01, 106-117.

24. Elansky N. F., Kozhevnikov V. N., Kuznetsov G. I., and Volkov B. I. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2003, V.39, 1, 93-107.

25. Egorova T. A., Rozanov E. V., Zubov V. A., and Yagovkina S. V. //Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2000, V.36, 6, 743-754.

26. Larin I. K., Nevozhai D. V., Spasskii A. I., Trofimova E. M., and Turkin L. E. // Kinetics and Katalysis, 1999, V. 40, No. 4, 435-442.

27. Larin I. K., Messineva N. A., Spasskii A. I., Trofimova E. M., and Turkin L. E. //Kinetics and Katalysis, 2000, V.41, 4, 437-443.

28. Larin I. K., Messineva N. A., Nevozhai D. V., Spasskii A. I., and Trofimova E. M. // Kinetics and Katalysis, 2000, V. 41, 3, 313-319.

29. Buben S.N., Larin I.K., Trofimova E. M.,Spasskii A. I., Messineva N.A., and Turkin L. E.//Khim. Fizika, 2002, V.21, 4, 52-61.

30. Dyominov I. G., Zadorozhny A. M. // In: Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: Scientific Understanding, Control and Implementation, edited by J. van Ham, A. P. M. Baede, L. A. Meyer and R. Ybema, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherland, 2000, p. 273 - 274.

31. rol' I.L.// teorol. Hydrol., 2000, 7, 17-32.

32. Dyominov I.G., Zadorozhny A. M. "Contribution of solar UV radiation to the observed ozone variations during the 21st and 22nd solar cycles"// Adv. Space Res., 2001, V. 27, 12, 1949 - 1954.

33. Bekoryukov V.I., Bugaeva I.V., Glazkov V.N., Zhadin E.A., Kiryushov B.M., Tarasenko D.A., and Fedorov V.V. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2001,V.37, 6, 757-763.

34. Nikulin G.N., and Repinskaya R.P. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2001,V.37, 5, 633-643.

35. Dgadin . . // teorol. Hydrol., 2000, 3, 16-28.

36. Larin I.K., and Ugarov .. // Khim. Fizika, 2002, V.21, 5, 58-63.

37. Larin I.K.// Khim. Fizika, 2002, V.21, 4, 45-51.

38. Zakarin E. A. and Mirkarimova B. M. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2000, V. 36, No. 3, 334-342.

39. Hutorova .G., Teptin G.., Latypov .F. // ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2000, V.13, 06-07, 678-680.

40. Dguravkeva .., Teptin G.., Hutorova .G. // ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2002, V. 15, 10, 929-934.

41. Belyh L.I., Malyh Yu.., Penzina E.E., Smagunova .N. // ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2002, V.15, 10, 944-948.

42. rguchintseva .V., Sirina N.V. // ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2002, V.15, 10, 941-943.

43. T. G. Adiks // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2003,V. 39, 1, 87-92.

44. T. G. Adiks // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2001, V. 37, 2, 206-217.

45. Sadovskii .P., Zykov S.V., Ol'kina S.., Raputa V.F.//ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 1999, V. 12, 06, 516-518.

46. rmina I.D. // Meteorologiya i gidrologiya (rus.), 2001, 6, 62-68.

47. Larin I.K., and Ugarov .. // Khim. Fizika (rus.), 2003, V.22, 4, 21-28.

48. Larin I.K., and Ugarov .. // Khim. Fizika (rus.), 2002, V.21, 12, 18-26.

49. Frol'kis V.A., Kiselev A.A., and Karol' I.L. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 1999, V. 35, 4, 401-412.

50. I. I. Mokhov, P. F. Demchenko, A. V. Eliseev, V. Ch. Khon, and D. V. Khvorost'yanov // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2002, V. 38, 5, 555-568.

51. Tereschin .G. "Dinamics of global antropogeneous emissions of small greenhouse gases and polluting substances and their influence on climate of the Earth in last and future"//Ph.D. thesis, Moscow, 1999.

52. Lysenko E. V., Perov S. P., Semenov A. I., Shefov N. N., Sukhodoev V. A., Givishvili G. V., and Leshchenko L. N. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 1999, V. 35, 4, 393-400.

53. E. V. Lysenko and V. Ya. Rusina // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2002, V. 38, 3, 296-304.

54. E. V. Lysenko and V. Ya. Rusina // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2002, V. 38, 3, 305-311.

55. Kondratiev K.Ya. // ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2002, V. 15, 10, 851-866.

56. Koutsenogii K.P., Makarov V.I.,Kovalskaya G.A., Smirnova A.I., Smolyakov B.S., Pavlyuk L.A. // Proceeding from: The Joint Fire Conference and Workshop "Crossing the Millenium: Integrating Spatial Technologies and Ecological Principles for a New Age in Fire Management". Grove Hotel, Boise, Idaho, June 15-17, 1999, p. 219-222.

57. Koutsenogii K.P., Koutsenogii P.. //Sibirian ecological journal, 2000, V.V11, 1, 11-20.

58. Smirnova .I, Koutsenogii K.P.// ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2000, V.13, 6-7, 687-689.

59. Koutsenogii K.P. // ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2000, V.13, 6-7, 577-587.

60. Yushkov, V.A., Nakane H., Tsvetkova N.D., Dorokhov, V.M., Sitnikova V.I., Likyanov .N. // Mteorologiya i gidrologiya (rus.), 2002, 12, 27-34.

61. Dorokhov V., S.Khaikon, D.Ignatev // Sixth European Symposium on stratospheric ozone, Goteborg, Sweden, September 2002, Abstracts of Presentation, p. 45.

62. M. Rex, R. J. Salawitch, N. R. P. Harris, P. von der Gathen, G. O. Braathen, A. Schulz, H. Deckelmann, M. Chipperfield, B.-M. Sinnhuber, E. Reimer, R. Alfier, R. Bevilacqua, K. Hoppel, M. Fromm, J. Lumpe, H. Küllmann, A. Kleinböhl, H. Bremer, M. von König, K. Künzi, D. Toohey, H. Vömel, E. Richard, K. Aikin, H. Jost, J. B. Greenblatt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, C.R. Webster, G.J. Flesch, D.C. Scott, R. L. Herman, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, F. L. Moore, D. F. Hurst, P. Romashkin, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, P. Wennberg, R. Neuber, M. Allart B. R. Bojkov, H. Claude, J. Davies, W. Davies, H. De Backer, H. Dier, V. Dorokhov, H. Fast, Y. Kondo, E. Kyrö, Z. Litynska, I. S. Mikkelsen, M. J. Molyneux, E. Moran, T. Nagai, H.Nakane, C. Parrondo, F. Ravegnani, P. Skrivankova, P. Viatte, and V. Yushkov. // Journal of Geophysical Research, 2002 ( in press ).

63. Tsvetkova N.D., Nakane H., .., Likyanov .N., Yushkov V.A., Dorokhov, V.M., Zaitsev I.G., Sitnikova V.L. // Izv. N. Physika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2002, V. 38, 2, 211-219.

64. Schulz, A., Rex, M., Harris, N. R. P., Braathen, G. O., Reimer, E., Alfier, R., Kilbane-Dawe, I., Eckermann, S., Allaart, M., Alpers, M., Bojkov, B., Cisneros, J., Claude, H., Cuevas, E., Davies, J., De Backer, H., Dier, H., Dorokhov, V., Fast, H., Godin, S., Johnson, B., Kois, B., Kondo, Y., Kosmidis, E., Kyrö, E., Litynska, Z., Mikkelsen, I. S., Molyneux, M. J., Murphy, G., Nagai, T., Nakane, H., O'Connor, F., Parrondo, C., Schmidlin, F. J., Skrivankova, P., Varotsos, C., Vialle, C., Viatte, P., Yushkov, V., Zerefos, C., von der Gathen, P. //J. Geophys. Res., 2001, V.106, p. 7495-7503.

65. Suortti, T., Karhu, J., Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Rosen, J., Kjome, N., Larsen, N., Neuber, R., Khattatov, V., Rudakov, V., Yushkov, V. and Nakane, H. // J. Geophys. Res, 2001, V.106, p. 20759-20766.

66. Kyrö, E., Kivi, R., Turunen, T., Aulamo, H., Rudakov, V. V., Khattatov, V. V., MacKenzie, A. R., Chipperfield, M. P., Lee, A. M., Stefanutti, L. and Ravegnani, F. // J. Geophys. Res, 2000, V.105, p.14599-14611.

67 Schulz, A., Rex, M., Steger, J., Harris, N., Braathen, G.O., Reimer, E., Alfier, R., Beck, A., Alpers, M., Cisneros, J., Claude, H., De Backer, H., Dier, H., Dorokhov, V., Fast, H., Godin, S., Hansen, G., Kondo, Y., Kosmidis, E., Kyro, E., Molyneux, M.J., Murphy, G., Nakane, H., Parrondo, C., Ravagnani, F., Varostos,C., Vialle, C., Yushkov, V., Zerefos, C., Von Der Gathen, P. // Geophys. Res. Lett., 2000, V.27, p.205-208.

68. Rex, M., P. von der Gathen, G. O. Braathen, N. R. P. Harris, E. Reimer, A. Beck, R. Alfier, R. KrM-|ger-Carstensen, M. Chipperfield, H. De Backer, D. Balis, F. O'Connor, H. Dier, V. Dorokhov, H. Fast, A. Gamma, M. Gil, E. KyrM-v, Z. Litynska, I. S. Mikkelsen, M. Molyneux, G. Murphy, S. J. Reid, M. Rummukainen, and C. Zerefos // J. Atmos. Chem., 1999 V.32, p.35-59.

69. Volk C.M., O.Riediger, M.Strunk, U.Schmidt, F.Ravegnani, A.Ulanovsky, V.Yushkov, G.Redaelli, // EGS 26th General Assembly, Nizza 25-30 Marzo 2001. Geophysica Research Abstracts, vol.3,2001, CD edition.

70. Yushkov V. A., Sitnikov N. M., Ulanovskii A. E., Ravegnani F., and Redaelli G. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2001, V. 37, 3, 275-280.

71. Zuev V. V., Marichev V. N., and Smirnov S. V. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 1999, V. 35, 5, 545-553.

72. Zuev V. V., Marichev V. N., and Smirnov S. V.//ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 1999, V.12, 10, 902-910.

73. Zuev V. V., Grischaev .V., Dolgii S.I. // ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2003, V.16, 01, 58-62.

74. Zvyagintsev A. M. and Kuznetsova I. N. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2002, V.38, 4, 431-439.

75. Gushchin G. P. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 1999, V. 35, 5, 554-557.

76. Kashin F. V., Aref'ev V. N., Visheratin K. N., Kamenogradskii N. E., Semenov V. K., and Sinyakov V. P. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2000, V. 36, 4, 425-453.

77. Elokhov A. S. and Gruzdev A. N. // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2000, V. 36, 6, 763-777.

78. Timofeev Yu. M., Ionov D. V., Polyakov A. V., Elanskii N. F., Elokhov A. S., Gruzdev A. N., Postylyakov O. V., and Rozanov E. V. "Comparison between Satellite and Ground-Based NO2 Total Content Measurements" // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2000, V. 36, 6, 737-742.

79. Batueva .V., Bazarov .V., Daridgapov D.D., Grischaev .V., Zuev V.V., Zuev P.V., Smirnov S.V. //ptika atmosphery i okeana (rus.), 2001, V. 14, 12, 1153-1156.

80. Belan B.D., Sklyadneva .., Tolmachev G.N. //ptika atmosphery i okeana, 2000, V.13, 09, 826-832.

81. dygrov V.., Dgadin .. // ptika atmosphery i okeana, 1999, V.12, 01, 46-53.

82. Luk'yanov A. N., Yushkov V. A., Nakane H., and Akiioshi H. H. // Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 2000, V.36, 755-762.

83. Rozinkina I.A. // Meteorol. Hydrol., 2001, 3, 4-17.

84. Frolov . V., Vadgnik V.I., Tsvetkov V.I., Astahov .D., Meteorol. Hydrol., , 2,21, 2000

85. Penenko V.V., Zvetkova .. //ptika atmosphery i okeana, 1999, V.12, 06, 482-487.

86. rupchatnikov V.N., Fomenko .. // ptika atmosphery i okeana, 1999, V.12, 6, 488-493.

87. Yudin M.S., Vilderotter K. // ptika atmosphery i okeana, 1999, V.12, 6, 519-522.

88. rupchatnikov V.N., Krylova .I. //ptika atmosphery i okeana, 2001, V.14, 515-519.

89. rupchatnikov V.N., Krylova .I. //ptika atmosphery i okeana, 2000, V.13, 622-626.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX I

NONLINEAR PROCESSES IN ATMOSPHERIC CEMICAL SYSTEM

A.K. Feigin

Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Institute of Applied Physics RAS

46 Ulyanov St., 603600 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (feigin@appl.sci-nnov.ru)

 

The nonlinear dynamical properties of the Polar Lower Stratospheric Photo-Chemical System (PLS PCS) and the Mesospheric Photo-Chemical System (MPCS) have been investigated under actual atmospheric conditions [1-5, 8].

The sequence of bifurcations of PLS PCS, as demonstrated in [1,8], occurs during Antarctic late winter and spring and influences on ozone layer evolution. Changes of characteristics of the bifurcations due to increasing inorganic chlorine abundance seem to be a reason, as motivated in [1,8], of abrupt development of Antarctic ozone hole in the mid-1980s. Future changes of these characteristics due to changes of other control parameters of PLS PCS can influence significantly on process of the ozone hole recovering [8]. The mechanisms of nonlinear behavior of mesospheric photochemistry were investigated [5]. The dependence of nonlinear dynamical properties of the MPCS on the vertical eddy diffusion rate may be a reason, as shown in [4,8], of summer amplifying of quasi-two-day wave observed in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The novel approach to construction of the mathematical models of atmospheric systems that demonstrate complex dynamic behavior has been developed [6,7]. The approach is based on the nonlinear dynamical analysis of time series generated by the system under investigation. The novel neural network based method for studying nonlinear relationships between observed characteristics of the atmosphere has been developed [9-10].

1.      I.B.Konovalov, A.M.Feigin and A.Y.Mukhina, Toward an understanding of the nonlinear nature of atmospheric photochemistry: Multiple equilibrium states in the high-latitude lower stratospheric photochemical system, J. Geophys. Res., 1999, v.104, n.D3, p.3,669-3,689.

2.      G.Sonnemann and A.M.Feigin. Nonlinear behavior of a reaction-diffusion system of the chemistry within the mesopause region. Phys. Rev. E, 1999, v.59, n.2-A, p.1719-1726.

3.      G.R.Sonnemann and A.M.Feigin. Nonlinear response of the upper mesospheric photochemical system under action of diffusion. Adv. Space Res., 1999, v.24, n.5, p.557-560.

4.      G.R.Sonnemann, A.M.Feigin and Y.I.Molkov. On the influence of diffusion upon the nonlinear behavior of the photochemistry of the mesopause region. J. Geophys. Res., 1999, v.104, n.D23, p.30,591-30,603.

5.      I.B.Konovalov and A.M.Feigin, Towards an understanding of the non-linear nature of atmospheric photochemistry: origin of the complicated dynamic behavior of the mesospheric photochemical system, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 2000, v.7, n.1, p.87-104.

6.      A.M.Feigin, Y.I.Molkov, D.N.Mukhin and E.M.Loskutov, Prognosis of qualitative behavior of a dynamic system by the observed chaotic time series, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, 2001, v.44, n.5-6, p.348-367.

7.      A.M.Feigin, Y.I.Molkov, D.N.Mukhin and E.M.Loskutov, Investigation of Nonlinear Dynamical Properties by the Observed Complex Behaviour as a Basis for Construction of the Dynamical Models of Atmospheric Photochemical Systems, Faraday Discussion, 2002, v.120, p.105-123.

8.      A.M.Feigin, Nonlinear dynamic models of atmospheric photochemical systems: methods for construction and analysis (Review), News of Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics of Atmosphere and Ocean, 2002, v.38, n.5, p.581-628 (in Russian).

9.      .I.B.Konovalov, Application of neural networks to studying nonlinear relationships between ozone and its precursors, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2002, v.107, n.D11, p.ACH 8-1 ─ ACH 8-14.

10.  I.B. Konovalov, Nonlinear relationships between atmospheric aerosol and its gaseous precursors: Analysis of long-term air quality monitoring data by means of neural networks, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 2003, v.3, p.835-866.

 

 

 

APPENDIX II

PHOTOCHEMICAL MODELING

I.L. Karol

Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory,

Karbyshev 7, St.Petersburg, Russia (karol@main.mgo.rssi.ru)

 

 

  1. The response of atmospheric chemistry to aircrafts emissions have been investigated using photochemical modeling for different situations and seasons:

 

I.L. Karol, A.A. Kiselev, Y.E. Ozolin, E.V. Rozanov, Plume Transformation Index (PTI) of the Subsonic Aircraft Exhausts and Their Dependence on the External Conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 2000, v. 27, 3, pp. 373-376.

 

2.      The evolution of radioactive active gases and its influence on hydrogen radicals have been studied using photochemical model simulations for the period 1850-2050:

 

A.A. Kiselev, I.L. Karol Modeling of the tropospheric carbon monoxide distribution in the northern temperate belt. Chemosphere: Global Change Science, 1999, v. 1, 3, pp. 283-300.

A.A. Kiselev, I.L. Karol Model study of tropospheric composition response to the NOx and CO pollution. Environmental Modelling and Software, 2000, v. 15, 6-7, pp. 585-590.

A.A. Kiselev, I.L. Karol Modeling of the long term tropospheric trends of hydroxyl radical for the Northern Hemosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 2000, v. 34, 29-30, pp. 5271-5282.

A.A. Kiselev, I.L. Karol The ratio between nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide total emissions as precursors of tropospheric hydroxyl content evolution. Atmospheric Environment, 2002, v. 36, pp. 5971-5981.

 

 

3.      3D developed photochemical transport model was used to describe the transport of methane:

 

Zubov, V.A., E.V. Rozanov, M.E. Schlesinger Hybrid Scheme for Three-Dimensional Advective Transport. Monthly Weather Review, 1999, v. 127, pp. 1335-1346.

Rozanov E.V. Reconstruction of the methane fluxes from the west Siberia gas fields by the 3D regional chemical transport model. Atmospheric Environment, 2000, v. 34, 29-30, pp. 5319-5328.

Jagovkina S., Karol I., Zubov V., Lagun V., Reshetnikov A., Rozanov E. Reconstruction of the Methane Fluxes from the West Siberia Gas Fields by the 3D Regional Chemical Transport Model. Air, Water and Soil Pollutions. Focus 1, 2001, . 429-436.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional References

Dvortsov V.L., M.Geller, V.Yudin, S.Smyshlyaev, Parameterization of the convective transport in a 2-D chemistry-transport model and its validation with Radon222 and other tracer simulations. J.Geophys.Res., 103, 22047-22062,1998.

Geller M.A., and Smyshlyaev S.P, A Model Study of Total Ozone Evolution 1979-2000 The Role of Individual Natural and Anthropogenic Effects. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(22), 2048, doi:10.1029/2002GL015689, 2002.

Smyshlyaev S.P., V.Dvortsov, M.Geller, V.Yudin: A two-dimensional model with input parameters from a GCM: Ozone sensitivity to different formulations for the longitudinal temperature variation. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 28373-28387,1998.

Smyshlyaev S.P., M.A.Geller and V.A.Yudin, Sensitivity of model assessments of HSCT effects on stratospheric ozone resulting from uncertaintes in the NOx production from lightning. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 26,401-26,418, 1999.

de Zafra, R. and S.Smyshlyaev. On the formation of HNO3 in the Antarctic mid-to-upper stratosphere in winter. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23115-23125, 2001.

Smyshlyaev S.P., and M.A.Geller, Analysis of SAGE II observations using data assimilation by SUNY-SPB two-dimensional model and comparison to TOMS data, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 32327-32336, 2001.

Yudin, V. A., S. P. Smyshlyaev, M. A. Geller, and V. Dvortsov, Transport diagnostics of GCMs and implications for 2-D chemistry-transport model of troposphere and stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 673-699, 2000.


 

ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY

 

V.N. Stasenko

 

Russian Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring

B. Predtechensky 7, Moscow 12342, Russia

(stasenko@mcc.mecom.ru)

 

 

Atmospheric electricity problem in the field of operative practice has been transformed during last few years from global aspects of fair weather electricity, atmospheric potential gradient to thunderstorm electricity including lightning detection networks, modeling of cloud electrization processes, investigation of cloud microphysics, dynamics and electricity interrelations and development of thundercloud modification methods.

1.      The number of theoretical works deals with non-stationary electric processes resulted from thunderstorm interaction with atmosphere and boundary layer as well [15,21]. The influence of the varying cloud charge structures on electric fields in atmosphere taking into account cloud boundary atmosphere conductivity step-wise variations is investigated in [4,11,18]. Calculation of electric fields in the upper atmosphere able to initiate lightning discharges from cloud top to ionosphere is an important application of this investigation, it was published [9,22] and reported to the International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity [23,24].

Influence of height profiles on electric conductivity of the atmosphere on distribution of cloud stationary electric field is considered in [6]. This result is important for the global electric circuit modeling and outlines important role the height profile of electric conductivity plays in estimation of electric current flowing to the upper atmosphere.

2.      Thunderstorm investigation by means of diverse methods expands and demonstrates a potential for severe storm moderation when cloud modification technologies will apply. Different experimental techniques are developed [2, 10, 11, 12, 13, 29] and various cloud seeding methods, for example, by means of aircraft, can be realized to alter cloud electric activity [2]. Artificial triggering of lightning flash (LF) generates a growing interest as the method for improving of lightning safety. Lidars as tool for artificial lightning need a preliminary investigation of cloud time and space windows for lightning triggering to be successful. Results of multi wave active-passive sounding of thunderstorms and numerical modeling show promise for such a targeting procedure [17, 20].

Possible mechanisms of convective cloud contact electrization are considered [7, 16, 17, 19]. Numerical model of convection based on a detailed microphysics with cloud particles size and mass distributions is available [16]. The necessity of implementation of aircraft measurements to the cloud models noticed in [19].

3.      Thunderstorm modification techniques by means of glaciogenic agents delivered by anti-hail rockets and shells are developed. Physical and statistical analysis of experimental data revealed most informative characteristics of lightning activity can be used to assess the effectiveness of thunder- and hail-cloud seeding [30]. Criteria for glaciogenic agent efficiency evaluation and overall cloud seeding effect as well were developed for operative use. Positive effect of cloud treatment has been observed during pre-thunderstorm cloud stage. Mass glaciogenic seeding alters significantly intensity of lightning activity (number of flashes per minute), spectral properties of cloud EM emission, stroke current wave steepness, electric charge amount neutralized by LF, and pulse-time sequence from non-lightning processes in a cloud. Ns type clouds upon a certain weather conditions when seeded can produce electric discharges too. Some of thunderstorm characteristics detected remotely can be used for hailstorm monitoring and hail suppression effect evaluation.

4.      In the field of thunderstorm detection use test of lighting sensors of different design is underway [13]. The sensors data on lightning flash location and time and space sequence indicate reliably thunderstorm evolution. Distributions of thunderstorm event duration, flash rate and total flash amount generated during convective cell lifetime, and regression equations for these characteristics listed in [32].

Time dependence of LF EM emission of VHF band, radar return signals and fast variations of electric field strength in thunderclouds were measured [30]. The effect of range, type and time-space structure of LF, thunderstorm intensity and stage of cloud development on the above characteristics was investigated.

Technique for electric charge amount evaluation, which is neutralized by LF of different type, has been developed based on the use of radio means. Statistical distributions of stroke peak currents and charge amounts neutralized by LF were obtained too. Total amount of electric charge generated during the life cycle of convective cell, considering an average rate of charge generation, estimated in [33].

5. Rocket electrostatic flux meter able to measure three orthogonal components of field strength inside of thundercloud within the range of 5.10-8 10-6 V/m with 10% accuracy and noise-to-signal ration 0,01, density of the noise current within the range of 5.10-9 10-6 A/m2 when cloud droplets affect the sensors electrodes and rocket sensor total charge within the range of 5.10-8 5.10-6 C as well has been reduced to practice [31].

6.      Thunderstorm rocket sounding indicates average field strength of 1 2.105 V/m in active thunderstorms with upper limits of 106 V/m. Hail containing clouds revealed 7.105 V/m. Design of electrostatic flux meter with electrodes of special shape minimizes noise current influence caused by the impact of charged droplets [34].

7.      Theoretical and experimental linkage among elements of atmospheric electricity and atmospheric aerosols (pollutants) analyzed in [1,3,5]. Results of atmospheric electricity measurements in Cuba presented in [8].

8.      Based on field strength measurements near the ground , search of meteorological factors responsible for health worsening of cardiological patients when weather changes revealed that it isnt pressure variation alone but the weather as a whole causes worsening in the general physical and mental state of people. The data on electric field of the atmosphere can be used as one of the predictors of health state weakening upon weather alternation [25, 26, 27, 28].

 

 

References

 

1.              Kupovih G.V., Morozov V.I., Shvartz Y.M. Theory of the electrode effect in atmosphere. Proc. Taganrog Univ., 1998, 122 p. (in Russian).

2.              Galperin S.M., Mykhailovsky Y.P., Stasenko V.N., Frolov V.N., Shchukin G.G. Main Geophysical Observatorys field test site use for thunderstorm modification. Proc. 10-th Scient. Conf. of JCH , Section 4 , April 2002, St.Petersburg, pp. 39-43 (in Russian).

3.              rozov V.N. Atmospheric aerosol layers as amplifiers of the ambient electric field. Proc. Intern. Conf. Natural and Antropogenic Aerosols, St.Petersburg, 1998, pp. 137-141 (in Russian).

4.              rozov V.N. Cloud-atmosphere boundary conductivity step-wise variation influence on electric fields generated by cloud charges. Proc. Intern. Conf. Natural and Antropogenic Aerosols, St.Petersburg, 1998, pp. 238-241 (in Russian).

5.              Rusina E.N., Khlebnikova N.Y., Shvartz Y.M. Air electric conductivity and its relation to atmospheric pollution. Proc. RC ARS, 2000, v. 2 (548), pp. 3-10 (in Russian).

6.              rozov V.N. Electric filed distribution caused by source of current in atmosphere with non-uniform conductivity. Proc. RC ARS, 2000, v. 2 (548), pp. 11-23 (in Russian).

7.              Stasenko V.N., Shchukin G.G. Methodology of thunderstorm investigation and modofication. Proc. RC ARS, 2000, v. 2 (548), pp. 24-33 (in Russian).

8.              Sokolenko L.G. Results of atmospheric electricity parameters measurement in tropics. Proc. RC ARS, 2000, v. 2 (548), pp. 33-41 (in Russian).

9.              rozov V.N. Calculation of thundercloud static electric fields necessary for initiation of discharge to the upper atmosphere. Proc. RC ARS, 2001, v. 3 (549), pp. 34-48 (in Russian).

10.          Galperin S.M., Shchukin G.G. Detection of cloud active electric zones by radio means. . Proc. RC ARS, 2000, v. 2 (548), pp 123-131 (in Russian).

11.          Galperin S.M. About joint use of thunderstorm direction-finders and weather surveillance radars. Proc. RC ARS, 2000, v. 2 (548), pp 147-152 (in Russian).

12.          Snegurov V.S., Shvartz Y.M. Development of methods and means for atmospheric electric state and thunderstorm monitoring in the Main Geophysical Observatory. Proc. RC ARS, 2001, v. 3 (549), pp. 153-163 (in Russian).

13.          Oguryaeva L.V., Snegurov V.S., Snegurov A.V., Shchukin G.G. Thunderstorm direction-finder for operative meteorological systems. Proc. RC ARS, 2001, v. 3 (549), pp. 190-199 (in Russian).

14.          rozov V.N., Shvartz Y.M., Shchukin G.G. Global electric circuit: physical and mathematical modeling and regular measurements in the lover atmosphere. Izvestia RAN, Earth Physics 2000, pp. 55-67 (in Russian).

15.          rozov V.N., Kupovih G.V. Non-stationary electric processes in boundary layer of the atmosphere. Izvestia VUZov North Caucasus Region, Natural Sciences, 4, 2002, pp. 82-85 (in Russian).

16.          Pachin V.A. Two-dimensional non-stationary numerical model of convective cloud electrization. . Proc. RC ARS, 2002, v. 4 (550), pp 30-36 (in Russian).

17.          rozov V.N. About lidar use for thunderstorm regulation. Proc. RC ARS, 2002, v. 4 (550), pp 20-29. (in Russian).

18.          rozov V.N. About electric stability in atmosphere with aerosols. Proc. RC ARS, 2002, v. 4 (550), pp 37-45. (in Russian).

19.          ikhailovsky Y.P., Pachin V.A. Modeling of electrically active convective clouds. Proc. AllRussian Conf. on Cloud Physics and Weather Modification. Nalchik, 2001, pp. 99-101. (in Russian).

20.          Galperin S.M., Morozov V.N., Shchukin G.G. About lidar use for thunderstorm regulation. Proc. AllRussian Conf. on Cloud Physics and Weather Modification. Nalchik, 2001, pp. 21-23. (in Russian).

21.          rozov V.N., Kupovyh G.V., Kiovo A.G. Non-stationary electrode effect in atmosphere. Proc. AllRussian Conf. on Cloud Physics and Weather Modification. Nalchik, 2001, pp. 64-66. (in Russian).

22.          rozov V.N. Calculation of electric fields of thundercloud sufficient for lightning discharge. Upper atmospheric layers, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomia, 2002, v.42, pp 121-129. (in Russian).

23.          Morozov V.N. Calculation of Electric Field strength necessary for altitude discharge above thunderstorms. Proc. 11th Intern. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Guntersville, Alabama, June 7-11, 1999, USA, pp. 69-71.

24.          Shvartz Ya.M, Petrenko I.A., Shchukin G.G. Data processing system for surface layer atmospheric electricity A.I.Voeikov MGO RCARS. Proc. 11th Intern. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Guntersville, Alabama, June 7-11, 1999, USA, pp. 536-539.

25.          Borisenkov Y.P., Kobzareva E.N., Krushatina I.A., Nikiforova L.N., Uspenskaya V.G., Shvartz Y.M. Role of atmospheric electricity on health problems of cardiological patients. Proc. AllRussian Conf. on Atmosphere and Health, St.Petersburg, Gidrometizdat, 1998, p. 13. (in Russian).

26.          Borisenkov Y.P., Kobzareva E.N., Krushatina I.A., Nikiforova L.N., Uspenskaya V.G., Shvartz Y.M. Seasonal relations between atmospheric electricity and health state of cardiological patients. Izvestia Teploenergoeffectivnye tehnologii, StPetersburg, 1999, 4, pp. 24-27. (in Russian).

27.          Borisenkov Y.P., Kobzareva E.N., Krushatina I.A., Nikiforova L.N., Uspenskaya V.G., Shvartz Y.M . Seasonal relations between atmospheric electricity and health state of cardiological patients. Izvestia RGO, 2000, v. 3, N 132, pp. 76-85. (in Russian).

28.          Borisenkov Y.P., Kobzareva E.N., Krushatina I.A., Nikiforova L.N., Uspenskaya V.G., Shvartz Y.M . Seasonal relations between atmospheric electricity and health state of cardiological patients. Proc. Intern. Congress, St.Petersburg, Gidrometeoizdat, 2000, pp 146-147. (in Russian).

29.          Makhotkin L.G. Atmospheric and industrial radio noise statistics. Upper atmospheric layers, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomia, 1999, v. 39, 5, pp. 108-111. (in Russian).

30.          Adjiev A.H., Sizazev S.M. et al. Simultaneous electric field pulses and radar return variation in comparison with numerical modeling. Izvestia RAN, Fizika Atmosfery i Okeana., 1993, v. 29, 3, pp. 364-368. (in Russian).

31.          Adjiev A.H., Kalov R.H. Study of effect of electrical charges and electrical fields on ice-forming activity of aerosol. Proc.14th Intern. Conf. on Nucleation and atmospheric aerosols, Finland, 1996. (in Russian).

32.          Adjiev A.H Climatological and physical and statistical thunderstorm characteristics in North Caucasus. Trudi VGI, v. 90. 1999, pp. 64-70 (in Russian).

33.          Adjiev A.H., Kalov R.H, Sizazev S.M. Thunderstorm development in convective cells. Trudi VGI, v. 91, 2001, v. 91, pp. 90-99 (in Russian).

34.          Adjiev A.H, Vakalov I.A. Air conductivity measurement device. Svidetelstvo na izobretenie 174979, 1997 (in Russian).

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX

 

 

ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRODYNAMICS

 

 

E.A. Mareev

 

Institute of Applied Physics,

Russian Academy of Science, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (mareev@appl.sci-nnov.ru)

 

 

 

1. Among the classical problems of atmospheric physics a search for universal spectra of atmospheric field pulsations like the Kolmogorov spectra of temperature and wind velocity, and analysis of coherent structures, are of particular importance. Recent studies of short period electric-field pulsations gave evidence for universal spectra of electric field fluctuations and aero-electric structures in the atmosphere.

1a. Short-term (Df @ 10-31 Hz) electric field pulsations have been measured in the surface atmospheric layer during 1999 and 2001 under fair-weather conditions. At the frequencies 10-21 Hz these pulsations have a power-law spectrum with the spectral index varying in the range from -1.23 to -3.36 while the most probable values of the index fall into the range from -2.25 to -3.0, unlike the temperature fluctuation spectra which obey in the inertial sub-range the Kolmogorov power law with the spectral index close to 5/3.

 

Anisimov S.V. and Mareev E.A., Pulsation spectra of electrical field of the near-surface atmosphere, Doklady RAS, 381, 1, 1-5, 2001.

Anisimov, S.V., E. A. Mareev, N. M. Shikhova and E. M. Dmitriev, Mechanisms for the formation of electric field pulsation spectra in the near-surface atmosphere, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, vol. 44, pp. 562-579, 2001.

Anisimov, S.V., E. A. Mareev, N. M. Shikhova and E. M. Dmitriev, Universal spectra of electric field pulsations in the atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Letters, V.29, 24, 2217, doi:10.1029/2002GL015765, 2002.

 

1b. The detection of aeroelectrical structures (AESs), accompanying usually time intervals of the most intensive atmospheric turbulence and fog condition, put forward the problem of relationship between the AESs and spectra formation. Remote sensing of aeroelectric pulsations with a changeable inter-sensor distance allowed us to study the relation between the power indexes of structure functions and spectra decay slopes for respective aeroelectric structures. Approximation of the latter by linear function aS = aD + has revealed aS10 = aD10 + 1,85 and aS3 = aD3 + 1,79 for the 10-m (energy-supply) and 3-m sub-ranges of the inertial interval of aeroelectrical turbulence.

 

Anisimov, S.V., E. A. Mareev and S. S. Bakastov, On the generation and evolution of aeroelectric structures in the surface layer, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 104, D12, pp. 14359-14367, 1999.

Anisimov S.V. and Mareev E.A., Aeroelectrical structures in the atmosphere, Doklady RAS, 371, 1, 101-104, 2000.

Anisimov, S.V., E. A. Mareev, and N. M. Shikhova, Sructures and spectra of turbulent pulsations of electric field in the atmosphere, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 279-282, 2003.

 

2. The electrical properties of the fog have been described in detail on the basis of aero-electrical observations and theoretical modeling. Fog is shown to increase the intensity of electric field pulsations by more than an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, in the majority of observations, the exponent of the spectrum does not differ drastically from the spectrum exponents typical for fair-weather conditions. The results of structuretime analysis offer the possibility of specifying two types of electrical states of fog: one is characterized by aero-electric structure generation, and another one, by chaotic structuretime variations. Possible mechanisms of electric-field profiles and spectra formation were considered with allowance for fog-particle charging, neutral gas turbulence and aero-electric structures in the fog.

 

Anisimov, S. V., Mareev E.A., Sorokin A.E., Shikhova N.M. and. Dmitriev E. M, Electrodynamical properties of the fog, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, vol. 39, N1, p. 58-73, 2003.

Sorokin, A.E., Anisimov S.V., Mareev E.A., Horizontal long-wire antenna as a fog electrical properties analyzer, in Proc. f Conference n fog and fog collection. St.John's, Canada, p. 473-476, July 2001.

Anisimov, S. V., Mareev E.A., Shikhova N.M., Sorokin A.E., and Dmitriev E. M, Electrodynamic of the fog, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, p. 411-414, 2003.

 

3. A complex of research on the global electric circuit has been carried out.

3a. Extensive database obtained after long-term ground-based aero-electrical and magnetic measurements at the Geophysical Observatory Borok, enables a unique insight into the main components of the global electric circuit and their interconnection from the middle-latitude observation point. Analysis of atmospheric electric field allows us to represent the global electric circuit as an aggregation of structures with different spatio-temporal scales. These structures are generated by troposphere and space sources of quasi-DC electric field. The energy and evolution of such structures are defined by efficiency of origins and physical property of weakly ionized quasi-neutral atmosphere with inhomogeneous electrical conductivity in the external magnetic field.

 

Anisimov S.V., The global electric circuit and lower atmospheric electricity, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003, pp. 693-696.

Anisimov S.V., Dmitriev E.M., Anisimova E.B., Sychev A.N., The database of Geophysical observatory "Borok", Herald of the DGGGMS RAS, #4(19), 2001, URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/4-2001/anisimov.htm#begin

Anisimov S.V., Mareev E.A., Fine structure of the global electric circuit, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003, pp. 781-784.

 

3b. The global electric circuit has been represented as a hierarchy of multi-scale dissipative systems with the atmospheric part of the circuit to be a thermodynamically open system driven by the external sources of energy. Estimates for the energy input into the large-scale field growth, fine structure generation and micro-scale electric field perturbations, as well as for the dissipation rate were carried out. The estimate of the electrostatic energy growth rate for a thunderstorm cell has been performed in the framework of the diffusion equation for the electric field in the thundercloud. Mechanisms of dissipative instabilities leading to structure generation were suggested.

 

Mareev E.A., Anisimov S.V., Global electric circuit as an open dissipative system, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003, pp. 797-800.

Mareev E.A., A.E. Sorokin, Autowave regimes of a thunderstorm electrification, Radiophys. Quantum Electr., 39, N1-2. P.797-814, 2001.

Davydenko S.S., Mareev E.A., Marshall T.C., Stolzenburg M., On the calculation of electric fields and currents of mesoscale convective systems and their influence on the global electric circuit, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003, pp. 697-700.

Davydenko S.S., Mareev E.A., Marshall T.C., Stolzenburg M., Calculation of electric fields and currents of mesoscale convective systems and their influence on the global electric circuit, J. Geophys. Res., submitted.

 

3c. A new source of atmospheric electricity - planetary electric generator, caused by the non-rigid rotation of the magnetized planet and its plasma envelope, has been suggested and investigated. This mechanism provides a difference of the electric potential between the ground and ionosphere about 90 kV and thus can play a significant role in the global electric circuit. An influence of the altitude and latitude variations of the atmospheric conductivity on the electric field and current density distributions in the lower atmosphere were analyzed. The electric field and current density in the lower atmosphere as calculated in the framework of the planetary electric generator model are of the order of the observed values in the fair weather regions of the terrestrial atmosphere.

 

P.A. Bespalov, Yu.V. Chugunov, and S.S. Davydenko, Planetary electric generator under fair-weather conditions with altitude-dependent atmospheric conductivity, J.Atm. Terr.Phys., 1996, v.58, N5, 605-611.

P.A. Bespalov, and S.S. Davydenko, On the manifestation of the latitudinal variation of atmospheric conductivity in the electric field and current distributions in the global circuit, Geomagnetizm I aeroniomiya, 2000, vol.40, No.2, p.71-77.

.. Soldatkin, and Yu.V.Chugunov, Stationary axially symmetric structures of weakly ionized plasma in the field of the rotating magnetized sphere, Plasma Phys. Rep., 2003, v.29, No.1, p.72-84.

 

4. Fine structure of electric field in thunderstorm clouds and lightning inception.

4a. Several electric field soundings through strat-form clouds and convective regions of a mid-latitude mesoscale convective system, made with balloon-borne electric field meters and radiosondes, have been examined. All these soundings demonstrate the presence of fine structures in the electric field distribution, with characteristic spatial scales of irregularities ranging from hundreds to tens of meters. Fourier analyses of the measured in-cloud electric fields give power-law spectra with the spectral index close to 2. Our theoretical studies to date have shown that a thundercloud has the ability of self-organization manifested as small-scale electrical stratification. As a result, electric cells are generated, which is of particular interest for understanding intra-cloud, cloud-to-ground and high-altitude discharge inception.

 

Mareev E.A., Sorokin A.E., Iudin D.I., Trakhtengerts V.Yu., Marshall T.C., Stolzenburg M., Fine structure of thunderstorm electric field: spectra from soundings and significance for charge generation mechanisms, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003, pp. 123-126.

Mareev E.A., A.E. Sorokin, and V.Yu. Trakhtengerts, Effects of collective charging in a multiflow aerosol plasma, Plasma Physics Reports, 25, N3, 289-300, 1999.

 

4b. A very important feature of the process of electric cell generation is that the electric field in these cells may exceed the mean field value substantially, reaching locally the critical breakdown field. The breakdown inside such a cell initiates breakdown in neighbouring cells, forming a widely branched nonstationary conducting network, occupied the full volume of the cloud. This network can be defined as a drainage system of the macroscopic space charge gathering in the cloud. The fractal approach to the quantitative description of this drainage system has been elaborated.

 

Iudin D.I., Trakhtengerts V.Yu., Grigoriev A.N., Hayakawa M., Electric charge fractal transport and electromagnetic high-frequency radiation on the lightning dicharge preliminary stage, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003, pp. 605-608.

Iudin D.I., Trakhtengerts V.Yu., Fractal dynamics of electric charge in a thunderstorm cloud, Izv. RAN, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, V.36, N5, p. 317, 2000.

Iudin D.I., Trakhtengerts V.Yu., Hayakawa M., Fractal dynamics of electric discharges in a thundercloud, Phys. Rev. E, 2003, accepted.

 

5. One of important aspects of atmospheric electrodynamics is nowadays the studies of runaway electron mechanism in the lightning initiation, generation of energetic particles, X-ray and gamma-ray emissions connected to the discharge processes in the atmosphere.

Gurevich A.V. and K.P. Zybin Runaway breakdown and electric discharges in thunderstorms (review). Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, vol. 171, N11, 2001, pp. 1177-1199.

Gurevich A.V., L.M. Duncan, Yu.V. Medvedev and K.P. Zybin, Radio emission due to simultaneous effect of runaway breakdown and extensive atmospheric showers, Physics letters, A 301, 2002, pp. 320-326.

6. A new quasi-electrostatic model of high altitude electric field generation due to the lightning - induced change of a thundercloud electric structure is presented. The key point of the model is the assumption that a highly conducting channel arises due to a cloud - to - ground discharge, which brings the ground potential to a region near the cloud bottom soon after the discharge initiation. Substantial increase in the electric field strength above the thundercloud at this moment is found. A horizontal extension of the lightning channel is taken into account in the framework of the bi-directional model of the channel propagation. This geometry provides a substantially bigger electric field perturbation than the simplest geometry of the vertical lightning channel does.

Smirnova E.I., Mareev E.A. and Chugunov Yu.V., Modeling of electric field transitional processes, Geophys. Res. Lett., V.27, N23, p.3833-3836, 2000.

 

7. The problem of large-scale quasi-stationary electric field and space charge generation in the moving weakly ionised medium (electric dynamo) is of fundamental significance for atmospheric electricity, as well as for dusty plasmas. Electric dynamo due to random motion of a medium is of particular interest with respect to numerous applications especially to thunderstorm clouds. General criteria for large-scale electric field generation in a continuous conducting medium have been formulated. The present focus of the theory is the turbulent electric dynamo in multi-component multi-flow systems and its application to thunderstorm electrification problem. Theory is based on the calculation of turbulent convective current and its further account in the large-scale evolution equations. Inductive and non-inductive charging mechanisms are taken into account. It is turned out that for inductive mechanism quasi-stationary aerodynamic turbulence might support large-scale charge separation. Estimations have been performed for a thunderstorm cloud conditions when Kolmogorov spectrum for turbulence is valid. These results were drawn for the explanation of large electric field strength in thunderstorm cells with high level of turbulence.

 

Mareev E.A. and V.Yu.Trakhtengerts, On the problem of electric dynamo, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, 39, N6, p. 797-814, 1996

Mareev E.A. and G.F.Sarafanov, On spatial structures formation in dusty plasmas, Physics of Plasmas, 5, N5, p. 1563-1565, 1998

Mareev, E.A., Turbulent electric dynamo in thunderstorm clouds, Proc. 11th Int. Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Gunterswille, USA, 1999, p. 272-275.

 


 

 

ATMOSPHERIC OZONE

 

N.F. Elansky

 

A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences,

3 Pyzhevsky, Moscow 119017, Russia (elansky@ifaran.ru)

 

 

Observations and data analysis

Over 2000-2001, regular monitoring of the total ozone content (TOC) have been continued at 27 ozonometric stations of the Rosgidromet (Russian Hydrometeorological Department). The Scientific Center of Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (SCRSA) representing a branch of the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO) provided engineering, metrological, and technical means for the measurements. Members of the SCRSA modernized the M-124 ozonometers being now in operation at the stations. A system of routine prompt inspection of the adequacy of the values measured at the stations was developed.

To supply the ozonometric stations with modern instrumentation, members of the Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (MGO), the State Institute of Optics, and the Institute of Fine Mechanics and Optics designed and manufactured in 2001 the pilot UV-spectrophotometer intended for measurements of the TOC, UV spectra, aerosol optical density, and so on [Shalamyanskii et al., 2002]. The spectrophotometer is supplied with the polychromator representing the diffraction grating allowing an analysis of radiation in the spectral range from 230 to 420 nm with a resolution of 0.8 nm. The instrument is automated; it is intended for long-term operation under different meteorological conditions. In 2002, principal characteristics of the instrument were studied and field measurements were performed in Voeikovo (the suburb of St. Petersburg). In September 2002, the instrument was calibrated against the standard UV-radiation sources designed in the Finland Meteorological Institute; the calibration was performed in the town of Iokioinen (Finland) [Shalamyanskii et al., 2002].

The CAO performs daily monitoring of the TOC over Russia and neighboring states through accumulation of the observational data obtained by the satellite supplied with the TOMS instrument and by the ground-based ozonometric network.

The scientific stations located at Kislovodsk, Moscow, Dolgoprudnyi, Lovozero, Tomsk, and Mond'ya continued monitoring of surface ozone.

The Kislovodsk high-mountain station (KHMS) located at a height of 2070 m above sea level has performed the ozone concentration measurements for the most long-term period (since March 1989) with a Dasibi-1008 AH gas analyzer. This instrument automatically introduces corrections for the pressure and temperature variations. It is characterized by a sensitivity of 1 ppbv, an absolute measurement error of 1-2 ppbv, and an inspection interval of 10 s. At regular intervals, the instrument is checked against the Dasibi-1008 AH and Dasibi-1008 RS gas analyzers installed at other stations of the Oboukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) and at the mobile laboratory used for the International TROICA experiments [Crutzen, Golitsyn, et al. 1996; Elansky, Markova, 1999]. The gas analyzers have been occasionally calibrated against the ozone generator built into the Dasibi-1008 RS instrument and against the GP-024 ozone generator. In 2002, the instrument installed at the KHMS was calibrated against the mobile standard no. 014. On the whole, the ozone variations over the KHMS are noticeably weaker than those over the other European high-mountain stations are. The character of the daily and seasonal ozone variations changes from year to year almost not at all. The surface ozone measurements performed simultaneously at the KHMS and at the Kislovodsk station located in the Recreation Park (870 m above sea level) showed that the urban and regional pollutants affect insignificantly the high-mountain ozone concentration.

The KHMS is an important component of the system of global surface ozone monitoring. The region of its location is characterized by a stable climate, by low activity of natural and anthropogenic sources of ozone precursors, and by weak uphill-downhill atmospheric circulation. The upward transport of pollutants in this region is not intensive. As a consequence, the KHMS differs from the ozonometric stations located in this latitudinal belt by smallness of the ozone seasonal variations, by a stable noon minimum in the daily behavior of the ozone concentration, and by inactivity of the chemical processes of daytime ozone formation. As a rule, the boundary atmospheric layer is localized under the KHMS and, therefore, the data obtained at this station characterize the atmospheric state over the entire globe.

The KHMS identified a significant negative trend in the ozone concentration (-1.750.40% per year), which was not identified by the Alpine stations over the period of observations. At night (from 01:00 to 05:00), when the station is within the free troposphere and no fog or heavy precipitation occur, the yearly trend is equal to -1.450.35% [Senik et al., 2001; Kuznetsova et al., 2001]. The KHMS identified several long-term ozone anomalies, which were opposite to those identified by the Alpine stations. This fact gives grounds to assume that the long-term variation in the ozone concentration and the variability in the large-scale circulation are closely related.

The IAP RAS and the Max Planck Institute of Chemistry (Germany) carried out a series of the TROICA experiments (Trans-Siberian Observations of the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) on the basis of the mobile carriage-laboratory moving along the Trans-Siberian Railroad. The laboratory allows atmospheric monitoring over the regions having no observation stations. From 1995 to 1999, five TROICA experiments were carried out along the railroads Moscow-Vladivostok (9300 km) and Murmansk-Kislovodsk [Krutzen et al., 1996; Crutzen, Elansky et al., 1998; Bergamashi et al., 1998].

To monitor the minor gaseous and aerosol components in the atmospheric surface layer, a set of computerized instrumentation was designed. It includes measuring devices for 3, NO, NO2, CH4, CO, CO2, and unsaturated organic substances, for aerosol concentration and microphysical and chemical properties, and for temperature profile in the layer 0-600 m, solar radiation, and meteorological and other parameters.

The characteristic peculiarities of the daily ozone variations in the atmospheric surface layer over the continent are the concentration minimum and maximum before sunrise and sunset, respectively. The daily variations of ozone are predominantly influenced by its dry deposition and daytime generation; the former is most intense at night under the condition of temperature inversions. The intense and prolonged inversions over Siberia initiate there a deeper minimum in the ozone concentration in comparison with other regions of the globe.

Over continental Russia, the seasonal ozone variations beyond settlements do not differ from those in remote background regions, namely, the spring maximum occurs. This similarity testifies that photochemical ozone sources over Russia are of lesser importance in comparison with those over Europe and North America.

In cities and industrial regions, the ozone concentration is low. However, in the Far East, intensive ozone generation up to 166 ppb was sometime observed in polluted air under the conditions of high temperature, humidity, and irradiation. In air polluted by products of biomass burning, intensive ozone generation proceeds as well; therewith, the ozone concentration increases by 20-30 ppb.

The nighttime rate of ozone dry deposition under inversions was measured over extensive regions of continental Russia. The maximum rate was observed in summer. Its year-to-year average value was equal to 0.7 cm/s. In winter, over snow-covered regions, the rate is equal to 0.08 cm/s. The summer rate of NOx dry deposition is equal to 0.14 cm/s.

Estimations show that the intense stratospheric intrusions increase the surface ozone concentration by a value ranging within 20 ppb.

On the basis of the mobile laboratory, unique data on the year-round variations in the surface concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere were obtained for the continental Russian regions lying from Moscow to Khabarovsk and from Murmansk to Kislovodsk.

It was found that the major contribution (67-95%) to the total VOC concentration is made by alkanes. Alkenes and aromatics contribute 2-10% and no more than 15%, respectively. Carbonyl compounds and alcohols contribute less than 15%.

It is shown that the VOC distributions are mainly determined by the local sources and long-rang transport from Central Europe. The atmospheric concentrations of the principal anthropogenic ingredients tend to decrease in the eastward and northward directions. The long-range transport affects predominantly alkanes due to their relative stability.

It is found that remote forest fires affect the composition and concentration of atmospheric organic compounds. Enhanced contents of light C2-C3-hydrocarbons, trichloroethane, trichloroethylen, benzene, and toluene and also the occurrence of o-xylene were identified in the plumes of forest fires [Elansky et al. 2001; Shakina et al. 2001].

Methods and instruments intended for stratospheric and mesospheric ozone monitoring based on remote sensing of the millimeter-wave radiation have been developed.

Members of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (PI RAS) have performed continuous monitoring of ozone over Moscow since January 1996. They retrieved the ozone concentration profiles in the height range from 15 to 75 km and computed the height-time ozone distribution [Solomonov et al., 2001]. The stratospheric ozone variations associated with the planetary waves were registered and studied; the seasonal behavior of stratospheric ozone was determined; the peculiarities in the daytime and nighttime mesospheric ozone profiles were revealed; and some anomalous phenomena manifesting themselves in long-term significant falls of the ozonospheric ozone content in the height range 25-45 km were identified.

In the framework of this study, pioneering simultaneous nighttime spectral measurements of the mm-wave rotational ozone radiation (PI RAS) and near-IR hydroxyl radiation (IAP RAS) emitted from the same region of the upper atmosphere were performed. A procedure for retrieval of the nighttime ozone profiles up to 100-km height was designed. It uses spectrophotometric data on the hydroxyl temperature at heights of 80-90 km. Significant nighttime variations in the mesospheric and lower-thermospheric ozone concentrations were revealed; the day-to-day variations over the height ranges 55-75 and 85-95 km are characterized by a factor reaching a value of 2-3 and by an increment of 1-8 ppm, respectively. Information on the ozone, atomic oxygen and hydrogen content and on the atmospheric temperature and density at the height of the mesopause were obtained [Perminov et al., 2002].

Simultaneous microwave spectrometric measurements of the stratospheric ozone content were performed in the city of Nizhni Novgorod and at the town of Apatity (the Institute of Applied Physics) located in the polar region. A portion of these measurements were performed in the framework of the International SOLVE program. The results obtained at the sites spaced widely testify that the ozone content measured is always closely associated with the state of the circumpolar vortex [Kulikov et al., 2002, Krasil'nikov et al., 2002].

Members of the PI RAS designed the low-noise mm-wave radio-spectrometer supplied with a wideband acoustooptic spectrum-analyzer (AOS) [Esepkina et al., 2002] designed in the St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University. The performance specification of the AOS characterized by an analyzing band at a frequency of 500 MHz and a frequency resolution of 0.9 MHz and also the peculiarities of the AOS application to measurements of the spectral line of the atmospheric ozone radiation at a frequency of 142.2 GHz were studied. The instrument was successfully applied to the ozone concentration measurements; the members of the PI RAS pioneered in applying such a technique in Russia.

In the city of Tomsk, at the Siberian Lidar Station (the Institute of Atmospheric Optics SD RAS), the lidar measurements of the stratospheric profiles of the ozone and aerosol concentrations and temperature and also the spectrophotometric measurements of the TOC and of the NO2 total content and profiles have been continued. On the basis of the lidar data consideration, the mechanisms of the ozonosphere variability and of the dynamics of optical characteristics of the stratospheric aerosol layer were improved [Zuev, 2000]. The data obtained in 1999-2002, under conditions of the long-term background state of the stratosphere were used to design models of the ozone and aerosol profiles [El'nikov et al., 2000]. The ozone paleobehavior was retrieved from the dendrochronological data [Zuev and Bondarenko, 2002].

Members of the St. Petersburg State University (StPSU) in cooperation with their German colleagues have performed remote sounding of the temperature profile and of the atmospheric gas composition, basing on interpretation of the downward heat IR-radiation spectra measured with the Fourier-interferometer OASIS under cloudless conditions. A procedure specially adapted to the data interpretation allowing clarification of the atmospheric parameters and improvement of the parameters for the spectral absolute calibration and for the atmospheric radiative model was proposed and analyzed on the basis of numerical experiments. It was shown that the remote method allows rather exact retrieval of the total content for different minor gases, such as N2O, CH4, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CO, and also of the tropospheric ozone content [Virolainen et al., 2001].

The routine releases of ozonesondes and TOC measurements at the Salekhard and Yakutsk stations were continued in the framework of a number of international and national programs. Consideration of the measurements performed during the winter of 2000 showed that the intensive Arctic polar cyclone can lead to ozone chemical destruction and to its cumulative losses reaching 60% at a height of the ozone maximum in the winter-spring period. The retrieved ozone profiles were used to validate the data obtained with the following satellite techniques: ADEOS-I/ILAS, POAM-III, and SAGE-III/METEOR-3M [Yushkov et al., 2002; Tsvetkova et al., 2002].

Much attention was given to the methods of interpretation of satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone. The TOC trends and anomalies over different atmospheric zones were analyzed on the basis of the NOMS data [Chernikov et al., 2002; Smirnov et al., 2000]. A series of technical works oriented on the development of methods of data processing and analyzing as applied to the IASI high-resolution IR spectral sounder intended for installation aboard the prospective EPS/METOP European meteorological satellite was performed. A method of ozone profile estimation on the basis of the information expected from the IASI sounder was considered [Uspenskii et al., 2003].

Members of the StPSU have completed interpretation of the space experiment performed on the basis of the Mir Space Station supplied with the Ozon-Mir instrumentation. It is the first experiment aimed at occultation sounding and using the multi-channel instrumentation capable to operate in the UV, visible, and near-IR spectral ranges. The retrieval of such ozonospheric parameters as the O3 and NO2 profiles, spectral coefficients of aerosol attenuation, and parameters of the aerosol size distribution was performed by the method of statistical regularization. A comparison between the values of the retrieved parameters and independent measurements showed a high quality of the applied techniques and procedures [Poberovskii et al., 1999; Polyakov et al., 1999, 2001]. A new procedure of parametrization of the spectral coefficient of aerosol attenuation was proposed for solution of the problem of ozonospheric occultation sounding from space objects [Polyakov et al., 1999, 2001a], and numerical studies of the expected accuracy of retrieving the profiles of the O3 and NO2 concentration and aerosol attenuation spectral coefficient with the SAGE III instrumentation were performed.

The CAO contributes to the R 3/SAGE-III Project. Members of the CAO determine the gaseous and aerosol composition of the atmosphere through retrieval of the atmospheric spectral transmittance functions obtained by using 80 spectral channels arranged in the interval from 280 to 1500 nm with a maximum spectral resolution of 0.95 nm and with a height resolution of about 500 m. In the framework of this project, methods, algorithms, and software were developed for retrieving the profiles of the O3 and NO2 concentrations and also of the aerosol and water-vapor extinction from spectral transmittance functions [Chayanova and Borisov, 1999].

Members of the StPSU, IAP RAS, and MGO validated the data on the TOC obtained in 1996-2001 with the GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, the ERS-2 satellite) instrumentation, comparing these data with the coordinated data of measurements with the Russian ground-based instrumentation and of the simultaneous measurements with the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, the EarthProbe satellite) instrumentation [Ionov et al., 2002]. The data of the Russian ozonometric network are in good agreement with the TOMS data; the mean systematic discrepancy between the data obtained with the ground-based instrumentation and with the GOME instrumentation are equal to 3%.

 

Numerical modeling

Members of the MGO designed a three-dimensional transport-photochemical model of the stratosphere. They estimated the effect of implementation of the Montreal Protocol on the ozonosphere. Model computations showed that evolution of the ozone layer over the period 1992-2000 was determined almost entirely by the current meteorological situation and implementation of the Montreal Protocol changed the ozone content by only 1-2%; therewith, the most pronounced increment was computed for the atmosphere over Antarctica [Egorov et al., 2002; Egorov et al., 2003; Zubov et al., 1999].

The spring depletions of the Antarctic ozone layer ("ozone hole") over 1993-1996 and 2002 were estimated. To simulate the situation, the accumulated meteorological data resulted from the UKMO reanalysis for the periods under consideration were used. Successful description of the gaseous and heterogeneous photochemical processes provided a good agreement of the model results with the data measured at the Seva (Japan), Marambio (Argentina), and Amundsen-Scott (USA) stations and reproduction of the unique behavior of the "ozone hole" in 2002 [Ozolin et al., 2003; Karol' I.L. et al., 2003].

Members of the RSHMU (St. Petersburg) studied the physico-chemical processes determining the space-time distribution of the atmospheric ozone and other atmospheric gases sensitive to the solar radiation. The computational technique allows accumulation of the measured results by the models of the atmospheric gaseous composition [Smyshlyaev et al., 1999; Yudin et al., 2000]. A set of models of the lower and middle atmosphere was designed. It is focussed on accumulation of the data on the atmospheric gaseous composition measured by different measuring systems (satellite, ground-based, airplane, balloon, etc.) in real-time, i.e., at each step of the model computations. This set of the models was used for a comprehensive analysis of the causes of the atmospheric ozone variability observed in 1970-2000, predictions of the ozone-layer variability in the 21st century, studies of the peculiarities in the distributions of ozone and nitrogen-containing gases in the Antarctic atmosphere, and studies of the effect of the large-scale transfer and convective flows of air masses on the distributions of ozone and other gases in the atmosphere. The degree of adequacy of the SAGE I and SAGE II satellite measurements was analyzed, and the results representing crude errors were rejected. The height-latitude diagrams for the non-measurable minor atmospheric gases participating in the chemical reactions with the gases under measurements are obtained [Smyshlyev and Geller, 2001; Geller and Smyshlyev, 2002].

Members of the IAP RAS studied the effect of disturbances of air flowing over orographic irregularities on the distribution of the ozone concentration in the troposphere and stratosphere. The effect of such a kind was estimated on the basis of numerical modeling of the air flowing around the Antarctic Peninsula. A stationary three-layer nonlinear model unlimited in height was used. The form of the irregularities corresponded exactly to the actual topography of the peninsula. According to the data of the numerical modeling, curves characterizing the flows and distributions of ozone over the range of the orographic disturbances were plotted. Within some layers, the ozone concentration variations reach 60-70%. The TOC over the leeward zone of the mountain ridge varies by 2.1%. Similar variations should be taken into account for interpretation of the ozone measurements performed by ground-based stations, airplanes, and satellites [Elansky et al., 2003].

Members of the Novosibirsk State University (NSU) used a numerical two-dimension zonally-averaged interactive dynamic radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere to study the global atmospheric gaseous and temperature variations caused by anthropogenic emissions of the following greenhouse and ozone-destroying gases: CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, HCFCs, HFCs, CFCs, CH3CCl3, CCl4, H-1211 and H-1301 halons, and sulfate compounds. The influence of sulfate aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds on the effect of the supersonic aircraft on the ozone layer was studied [Dyominov et al., 2000]. Numerical experiments aimed at clarification of the relative contribution of the natural and anthropogenic factors to the observable variations in the atmospheric ozone content were performed [Dyominov and Zadorozhny, 2000; Dyominov and Zadorozhny, 2001]. The ozone layer state over the period up to 2050 was predicted [Dyominov and Zadorozhny, 2000].

The numerical experiments showed that the sulfate aerosol layer of the atmosphere and the polar stratospheric clouds over the Northern Hemisphere represent the buffer attenuating the susceptibility of the atmospheric ozone layer to the supersonic aircraft effect computed on the basis of the predictable emissions of sulfur compounds and nitrogen oxides from the supersonic aircraft engines. Over the Antarctic region, the heterogeneous processes occurring at the surfaces of the sulfate and polar stratospheric clouds intensify the supersonic aircraft effect on the ozone layer [Dyominov et al., 2000].

It was shown that the 11-year variations in the UV solar radiation and the El Chichon and Pinatubo eruptions contributed significantly to the global ozone content variations observed late in the 20th century [Dyominov and Zadorozhny, 2001]. The effect inherent in the atmosphere influenced by anthropogenic pollutants and manifesting itself in prolongation of the influence of volcanic eruptions on the global ozone content was revealed and explained [Dyominov and Zadorozhny, 2001].

Greenhouse gases influence the ozone layer because they change the atmospheric temperature. The predicted stratospheric cooling [Dyominov, Zadorozhny, 2000] initiated by the continuous increase in the content of greenhouse gases intensifies the polar ozone depletion through intensification of the heterogeneous processes at the surface of the polar stratospheric clouds; however, on the other hand, it decreases the ozone photochemical losses associated with the temperature dependences of the gaseous reactions. The computations show that, at the 45oN latitude, the CO2 and CH4 emissions will lead in December 2050 to the increasing in the TOC by about 2.9 and 1.7%, respectively, and the N2O and haloid emissions will lead to the decreasing in the TOC by about 1.9 and 3.5%, respectively. The model computations predict that the continuing increase in the atmospheric CO2 content will accelerate significantly the ozone layer rehabilitation after termination of the anthropogenic haloid emissions. This effect will be clearly pronounced after 2010 and, at the 45oN latitude, will lead to the relaxation of the ozone depletion from 3.5 to 0.65% in 2050.

Members of the Institute of Applied Physics RAS studied the nonlinear dynamical properties of the polar lower-stratospheric photochemical system (PLS PCS) and the mesospheric photochemical system (MPCS) revealing themselves under actual atmospheric conditions [Konovalov et.al., 1999; Sonnemann, Feigin, 1999; Sonnemann, Feigin, 1999; Sonnemann et al., 1999; Konovalov, Feigin, 2000; Feigin et al., 2002].

It was shown that, over the Arctic, under the conditions of late winter and spring, a series of the PLS PCS bifurcations occurs. It can influence significantly the evolution of this system [Konovalov et.al., 1999; Feigin et al., 2002]. Increasing in the atmospheric inorganic chlorine content leads to changes in characteristics of these bifurcations. In [Konovalov et.al., 1999; Feigin et al., 2002], it was shown that this phenomenon might initiate the "sudden" appearance of the Antarctic ozone hole in the mid-1980s. Possible future bifurcation variations caused by trends of other PLS PCS control parameters, such as the concentrations of the greenhouse gases and temperature, may influence significantly the process of rehabilitation of the ozone hole [Feigin et.al, 2002].

The mechanisms of the nonlinear behavior of the mesospheric photochemistry were studied [Konovalov, Feigin, 2000]. It was shown [Sonnemann et al., 1999; Feigin et.al, 2002] that the dependence of nonlinear dynamic properties of the MPCS on the vertical turbulent diffusion intensity may initiate multiple intensification of the quasi-two-day waves observable over the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

A new approach to formulation of mathematical models of atmospheric systems characterized by a complicated dynamic behavior was developed. This approach is based on the nonlinear dynamic analysis of the temporal dependences characteristic for the system under consideration [Feigin et. al., 2001; Feigin et.al, 2002].

A new method for revealing the nonlinear correlations of observable atmospheric characteristics is proposed and developed. This method is based on application of artificial neuron nets [Konovalov, 2002; Konovalov, 2003].

 

References

 

1. Arabov A.Ya., M.I. Beloglazov, N.F. Elansky, A. Yu. Karpechko, Z.V. Kortunova, G.I. Kuznetsov, N.P. Povolotskaya, I.A. Senik, O.A. Tarasova, 2002. The features of the surface ozone variations above European Russia, "Physical problems of ecology (Physical Ecology)", conference proceedings. Eds. V.I. Trukhin, Yu. A. Pirogov, K.V. Pokazeev, M.: MAX Press, 9, 56-69.

2. Chayanova E.A., Y.A. Borisov, 1999: Accuracy estimation of the SAGE-III retrieval algorithm for nitrogen dioxide, aerosol and ozone. Proc. SPIE, 3501, 230-237.

3. Chernikov A.A., Borisov Yu.A., Zvyagintsev A.M., et al., 2000. Tendencies in the ozone layer measurements by satellite instrument TOMS and ground-based network. Earth Res. from Space, 6, 23-32.

4. Crutzen P.J., N.F. Elansky, M. Hahn, G.S. Golitsyn, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, D. Scharffe, I.B.Belikov, M. Maiss, P. Bergamaschi, T. Rockmann, A.M. Grisenko and V.V. Sevostyanov. Trace gas measurements between Moscow and Vladivostok using the Trans-Siberian railroad. J. Atm. Chemistry, 1998 29, 179-194.

5. Dyominov I. G., Zadorozhny A. M., Elansky N. F., 2000. Modeling of atmospheric effects of supersonic aviation: Role of sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds. In: Aviation, Aerosols, Contrails and Cirrus Clouds (A2C3), Proceedings of a European Workshop, Seeheim (near Frankfurt/Main), Germany, July 10 12, 2000, Air Pollution Research Report 74, EUR 19428, Edited by U. Schumann and G. T. Amanatidis, European Commission, Brussels, 258 261.

6. Dyominov I. G., Zadorozhny A. M., 2000. Study of ozone and temperature variations in the troposphere and stratosphere due to anthropogenic perturbations. In: Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: Scientific Understanding, Control and Implementation, edited by J. van Ham, A. P. M. Baede, L. A. Meyer and R. Ybema, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherland, 273-274.

7. Dyominov I. G., Zadorozhny A. M., 2001. Contribution of solar UV radiation to the observed ozone variations during the 21st and 22nd solar cycles. Adv. Space Res., 27, 12, 19491954.

8. Egorova T.A., E.V.Rozanov, M. Schlesinger, S.L.Malishev, I.L.Karol, V.A.Zubov, 2002. The annual simulation of variation total ozone in 1992-2002 and effect of restriction to produce destroying ozone agents. Meteorol. Hydrol., 1, 5-13.

9. Egorova T.A., E.V.Rozanov, V.A.Zubov, I.L.Kapol The model of ozone trend investigation (MEZON): the brief description and validation//Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 2003, 39, 3, in published

10. Elansky N.F., A.Ya. Arabov, I.A. Senik, E.N. Kadygrov, A.D. Lykov, T.A. Markova, V.W. Savinych, G.I. Kuznetsov, M.I. Beloglazov, A.Yu. Karpechko, Z.V. Kortunova, O.A. Tarasova, 2002. The Mechanisms of the Surface Ozone Variations at Some Remote and Rural Regions of Russia, Proceedings from the EUROTRAC Symposium 2002, Eds. P.M. Midgley, and M.Reuther, Mergraf Verlag, Wiekersheim, Germany, TOR07. 1-5

11. Elansky N.F. T.A.Markova, I.A.Senik, G.I.Kuznetsov, O.A.Tarasova, M.I.Beloglazov, A.Yu.Karpechko, Z.V.Kortunova, 2001. Surface Ozone in Remote, Rural and Urban Regions of Russia//EUROTRAC-2, TOR-2 Tropospheric Ozone Research, Annual Report 1999. 65-72.

12. Elansky N.F., F.Ya. Arabov, I.A.Senik, G.I.Kuznetsov, O.A.Tarasova, M.I.Beloglasov, A.Yu. Karpechko and Z.V.Kortunova, 2001. The Features of Surface Ozone Variations in Remote, Rural and Urban Regions of Russia//EUROTRAC-2, TOR-2, Troposphere Ozone Research, Annual Report 2000. 72-76.

13. Elansky N.F., T. A. Markova, I. B. Belikov, and E.A.Oberlander, 2001a. Transcontinental Observations of Surface Ozone Concentration in the TROICA Experiments: 1. Space and Time Variability. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 37, Suppl. 1, S24-S38.

14. N. F. Elansky G. S. Golitsyn, T. S. Vlasenko, and A. A. Volokh. 2001b. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in Surface Air along the Trans-Siberian Railroad//Izvestiya, Atmosoheric and Oceanic Physics, V. 37, Suppl. 1, , pp. S10-S23.

15. Elansky N.F., L. V. Panin, and I. B. Belikov, 2001. Influence of High-Voltage Transmission Lines on Surface Ozone Concentration Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 37, Suppl. 1, S92-S101.

16. Elansky N.F., V.N.Kozhevnikov, G.I.Kuznetsov, and B.I.Volkov, 2003. Effect of Orographic Disturbances on Ozone Redistribution in the Atmosphere by the Example of Airflow about the Antarctic Peninsula//Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phus., 39, 1, 93-107.

17. Elansky N.F., F.M. Zviagintsev, O.A. Tarasova, 2002. Tropospheric ozone research in the Europe and Russia. Meteorologia and gidrologia, 1, 125-128.

18. .., .. - .// " "/(85-e ..)/ . , . 1999. . 437-442.

19. El'nikov A.V., Zuev V.V., Bondarenko S.L., 2000. Retrieving the profiles of stratospheric ozone from lidar sensing data. Atm. and Oceanic Optics, 13, 12, 1029-1034.

20. Esepkina N.A., S.K. Kruglov, S.B. Rozanov et al., 2002. Features of acoustic-optical spectrometer for atmospheric remote sensing at mm-wavelengths. Lett. to JTP, 28, 10, 35-40 (in Russian).

21. Feigin A.M., Y.I.Molkov, D.N.Mukhin and E.M.Loskutov, 2001. Prognosis of qualitative behavior of a dynamic system by the observed chaotic time series. Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, 44, 5-6, 348-367.

22. Feigin A.M., Y.I.Molkov, D.N.Mukhin and E.M.Loskutov, 2002. Investigation of Nonlinear Dynamical Properties by the Observed Complex Behaviour as a Basis for Construction of the Dynamical Models of Atmospheric Photochemical Systems. Faraday Discussion, 120, 105-123.

23. Feigin A.M., 2002. Nonlinear dynamic models of atmospheric photochemical systems: methods for construction and analysis (Review). News of Russian Academy of Sciences. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 38, 5, 581-628.

24. Golitsin G.S., N.F. Elansky, T.A. Markova, L.V. Panin, 2002. Regime of surface ozone above continental regions of the Russia. In: Global changes of climate and their consequences. Eds. By G.S. Golitsin, U.A. Izrael. Moscow, 195-211.

25. Geller M.A., and Smyshlyaev S.P, 2002: A model study of total ozone evolution 1979-2000 The role of individual natural and anthropogenic effects. Geoph. Res. Lett., 29(22), 2048, doi:10.1029/2002GL015689.

26. Ionov D.V., Timofeyev Yu.M., Shalamyansky A.M., 2002: Comparison of satellite (GOME, TOMS instruments) and ground-based measurements of total ozone content. Earth Res. from Space, 3, 10-19.

27. Karol I.L., T.A.Egorova, V.A.Zubov, U.E. Ozolin, E.V.Rozanov, 2003. The ozone hole is constricting, isnt it? Meteorology and gidrology, 4, in published.

28. Karpetchko A.U., N.F. Elansky, G.I. Kuznetsov, O.A. Tarasova, M.I. Beloglazov, S.A. Rumiantsev, 2001. The role of air transport in surface ozone field formation on Kola Peninsular. Izv. Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 37, 5, 692-699.

29. Kuznetsova I.N., N.F. Elansky, and I. A. Senik, 2001. Measurements of the Tropospheric Ozone Concentration over the Kislovodsk High-Altitude Scientific Station: Synoptic-Scale Meteorological Processes As a Cause of Ozone Variations. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 37, Suppl. 1, S120-S130.

30. Kuznetsova I.N., N.F.Elanskii, I.Yu.Shalygina, E.N.Kadygrov, A.D.Lykov, 2002. Temperature Inversions and their influence on surface ozone concentrations in the vicinity of the Kislovodsk town. Meteorology and gidrology, 9, 40-51.

31. Krasilnikov A.A., Kulikov Yu.Yu., Ryskin V.G., 2002. Features of ozone behavior in upper atmosphere during the winter of 1999/2000 from simultaneous microwave measurements in N. Novgorod (56N, 44E) and Apatites (67N, 35E). Geomagn. and Aeronom., 42, 2, 265-273.

32. Kulikov Yu.Yu., Krasilnikov A.A., Ryskin V.G., 2002. Results of microwave studies of the ozone layer structure in Polar latitudes during winter anomalous giving of the stratosphere. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys. 38, 2, 182-191.

33. Konovalov I.B., A.M.Feigin and A.Y.Mukhina, 1999. Toward an understanding of the nonlinear nature of atmospheric photochemistry: Multiple equilibrium states in the high-latitude lower stratospheric photochemical system. J. Geophys. Res., 104, D3, 3,669-3,689.

34. Konovalov I.B, 2002. Application of neural networks to studying nonlinear relationships between ozone and its precursors. J. Geophys. Res., 107, n.D11, ACH 8-1, 8-14.

35. Konovalov I.B., 2003. Nonlinear relationships between atmospheric aerosol and its gaseous precursors: Analysis of long-term air quality monitoring data by means of neural networks. J. Atm. Chem. and Phys. Discussions, 3, 835-866.

36. Konovalov I.B and A.M.Feigin,2000. Towards an understanding of the non-linear nature of atmospheric photochemistry: origin of the complicated dynamic behavior of the mesospheric photochemical system. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 7, 1, 87-104.

37. Ozolin U.E., I.L.Karol, A.A. Kiselev, V.A.Zubov, 2003. The trajectory modeling of transfer and photochemistry air mass in polar vortex Antarctic stratosphere. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic. Phys., 39, 3. Press.

38. Perminov V.I., E.P. Kropotkina, V.V. Bakanas et al., 2002. Determination of the concentration of atmospheric principal and minor gaseous components at the mesopause altitude. Geomagn. and Aeronomy, 42, 6, 814-820.

39. Poberovskii A.V., A.V. Polyakov, Yu. M. Timofeyev et al., 1999. Ozone profile determination by occultation sounding from the Mir space station: 1. Instrumentation and data processing method. Izv. RAS, Atm. and Ocean. Phys., 35, 3, 312-321.

40. Polyakov A.V., A.V. Poberovskii, Yu.M. Timofeyev, 1999. Ozone profile determination by occultation sounding from the Mir space station: 2. Comparison of the observation results with independent data. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 35, 3, 322-328.

41. Polyakov, A.V., Yu.M.Timofeev, A.V.Poberovskii, and A.V.Vasil'ev, 2001. Retrieval of stratospheric vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient from the Ozon-Mir measurements (Mir Space Station). Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 37, 2, 213222.

42. Polyakov,A.V., A.V.Vasil'ev, and Yu.M. Timofeev, 2001a. Parametrization of the spectral dependence of the aerosol attenuation coefficient in problems of atmospheric occultation sounding from space. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 37, 5, 646657.

43. Shakina N.P., A. R. Ivanova, N. F. Elansky, and T. A. Markova, 2001. Transcontinental Observations of Surface Ozone Concentration in the TROICA Experiments: 2. The Effect of the Stratosphere--Troposphere Exchange. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 37, Suppl. 1, S39-S48.

44. Senik I.A. and N. F. Elansky, 2001. Surface Ozone Concentration Measurements at the Kislovodsk High-Altitude Scientific Station: Temporal Variations and Trends. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Phys., 37, Suppl. 1, S110-S119.

45. Smirnov O.A., Ionov D.V., Timofeyev Yu.M., Vasilyev A.V.2000. New estimations of total ozone trends (from TOMS data). Earth Res. from Space, 2, 3-7.

46. Smyshlyaev S.P., M.A. Geller and V.A. Yudin, 1999. Sensitivity of model assessments of HSCT effects on stratospheric ozone resulting from uncertaintes in the NOx production from lightning. J.Geophys. Res., 104, 26,401-26,418.

47. Smyshlyaev S.P., and M.A. Geller, 2001. Analysis of SAGE II observations using data assimilation by SUNY-SPB two-dimensional model and comparison to TOMS data. JGR, 106, 32327-32336.

48. Solomonov S.V., E.P. Kropotkina, S.B. Rozanov et al., 2001. Variations of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution from results of ground-based remote sensing at millimeter waves. In IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Virginia, 1150-1152.

49. Sonnemann G. and A.M.Feigin, 1999. Nonlinear behavior of a reaction-diffusion system of the chemistry within the mesopause region. Phys. Rev. E, 59, 2-A, 1719-1726.

50 Sonnemann G.R. and A.M.Feigin, 1999a. Nonlinear response of the upper mesospheric photochemical system under action of diffusion. Adv. Space Res., 24, 5,.557-560.

51. Sonnemann G.R., A.M.Feigin and Y.I.Molkov, 1999. On the influence of diffusion upon the nonlinear behavior of the photochemistry of the mesopause region. J. Geophys. Res., 104, D23, 30,591-30,603.

52. Shalamyansky .., .. , .. , 2002. . , 582, 102-109.

53. Tarasova O.A., G.I. Kuznetsov, I.N. Kuznetsova, I.A. Senik, M.I. Beloglazov, A. Yu. Karpechko, 2002. The Impact of Air Transport and Meteorological Processes on the Surface Ozone Variations at Kislovodsk High Mountain Station and Lovozero Site, Proceedings from the EUROTRAC Symposium 2002, Eds. P.M. Midgley, and M.Reuther, Mergraf Verlag, Wiekersheim, Germany, TOR27. 1-5

54. Tarasova O.A., Elansky, N.F., Kuznetsov, G.I., Kuznetsova, I.N., Senik, I.A., 2003. Impact of Air Transport on Seasonal Variations and Trends of Surface Ozone at Kislovodsk High Mountain Station. J. Atm. Chem, 3.(in press).

55. Tarasova O.A. and A.Yu. Karpetchko, 2003. Accounting for local meteorological effects in the ozone time-series of Lovozero (Kola Peninsula), Atm. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 3, 655-676.

56. Uspensky A.B., Romanov S.V., Trotsenko A.N., 2003. Simulation of remote measurements of the ozone vertical distribution in the atmosphere by measurement data of satellite IR-sounders with high spectral resolution. Earth Res. from Space, 1, 49-57.

57. Virolainen Ya.A., Polyakov A.V., Timofeyev Yu.M. et al., 2001. Determination of characteristics of atmospheric gaseous content from measurements of downwelling thermal IR radiation. Izv. RAN, Atm. and Ocean. Phys., 37, 1-8.

58. Yudin, V.A., S.P. Smyshlyaev, M.A. Geller, and V. Dvortsov, 2000. Transport diagnostics of GCMs and implications for 2-D chemistry-transport model of troposphere and stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 673-699.

59. Yushkov, V., H. Nakane, N. D. Cvetkova, V. M. Dorokhov, V. I. Sitnikova, A. N. Lukyanov, Investigation of ozone layer during winter-spring period of 2000 using balloon and groung based measurements in Siberia, Meteorology and Hydrology, 12, 27-34, 2002.

60. Zubov V.A., E.V.Rozanov,1999. M.E.Schlesinger Hybrid Scheme for Three-Dimensional Advective Transport. Monthly Weather Review, 127, 1335-1346.

61. Zuev V.V.,2000. Remote optical monitoring of stratospheric changes. Tomsk: SSE Rasko, 140 pp.

62. Zuev V.V., Bondarenko S.L., 2002. Long-term variability of the ozonosphere: retrospective and perspective. Atm. and Oceanic Optics, 15, 10, 824-827.

63.  N. D. Cvetkova, H. Nakane, A. N. Lukyanov, Yushkov, V., V. M. Dorokhov, V. I. Zaitsev, V. I. Sitnikova, Estimation of ozone depletion inside Arctic stratospheric vortex during winter-spring season in Siberia using balloon measurements during 1995-2000, Izvestya RAN, Fizika atmosphery I Okeana, 38, 2, 211-219, 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX

 

A.A. Krivolutsky

 

 

Central Aerological Observatory

Pervomayskaya 7, Dolgoprudny 141700, Moscow Region, Russia (alkriv@netclub.ru)

 

 

1. Cosmic influence on ozone layer

 

Special focus was made to investigate the response of ozone and other species to energetic charged particles (solar and galactic cosmic rays). Ionization caused by solar cosmic rays after solar proton events (SPEs) leads to additional production of nitrogen and hydrogen oxides in the mesosphere- stratosphere region, which could destroy ozone in catalytic cycles. Physics and history of these directions of atmospheric chemistry was published in Review (Krivolutsky et al., 1999). Ozone response to several SPEs including occurred in October 1989, and also during last solar maximum were studied on the basis of photochemical modeling (Krivolutsky et al., 1999; Krivolutsky et al., 2001; Krivolutsky, 2001). The results of photochemical calculations shown that ozone may be practically destroyed in the mesosphere after strong SPEs like events in October 1989, July 2000. The results of comparison between model simulations and observations (HALOE instrument on board of UARS) gave rather good correspondence.

Galactic cosmic rays (which has decadal variability) may influence ozone and other species in the troposphere (Krivolutsky et al., 2002), however data analysis shows more eleven-year signal in ozone than calculated effect.

 

 

2. Photochemistry of ozone spring anomaly in presence of air depression over Antarctica

 

A role of specific atmospheric condition (low air pressure) over South Pole for stratospheric gas-phase photochemistry have been investigated on the basis of data analysis and photochemical numerical modeling (Krivolutsky, 1999; Krivolutsky and Vyshkova, 2002). There were no heterogeneous reactions were used in calculations to estimate a pure effect of gas phase chemistry and photolysis rates on ozone in presence of air depression. The results of model runs have shown a strong correlation between air pressure deficit over South polar region and column ozone. The behavior of ozone content after sunrise in Antarctica, in accordance to calculations, has a visible cavity with time and looks like ozone hole. The maximum of calculated ozone depletion was placed above 20 km level (in contrast to the observations) in presence of negligible vertical transport caused by eddy diffusion, but when diffusion was took into account the results were more similar to observations. Correspondent rapid ozone depletion after sunrise may equals about 100 DU in presence of vertical eddy diffusion. So, some rather rapid solutions is possible to find inside gas-phase stratospheric photochemical system if real annual cycle and inter-annual variability in pressure is took into account. Strong enhancement of ClO content after sunrise has been found also in calculations around 20 km level. This effect was initiated by increased photolysis rates. A physical explanation of described effects is based on strong dependence of ozone destruction on the air density and its non-linear character which leads to a very short time of ozone relaxation after sunrise over South Pole.

 

 

References

 

Krivolutsky, A., A. Kuminov, and A. Repnev. Effects of cosmic rays on the Earths ozonosphere: A review. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 39, 271-282, 1999 .

Krivolutsky, A., Global structure of ozone response to solar and galactic cosmic ray influence. Adv. in Space Res., vol. 24, N5, 641-648, 1999.

Krivolutsky, A., A.Kuminov, and A. Repnev, N. Perejaslova, G. Bazilevskaya, Ozone response after solar proton event in November 1997 (photochemical modeling). Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, vol. 41, No 2, 235-244, 2001. .

Krivolutsky A., Cosmic ray influence on chemical composition of the atmosphere of the Earth. Adv. in Space Res., vol. 21, No 12, 2001.

Krivolutsky A., Ozone variability of long-term scale near polar regions and its connection to basic atmospheric conditions, Adv. in Space Res., 28, 971-980, 2001

Krivolutsky A., A. Ondraskova, J. Lastovicka, Photochemical response of neutral and ionised middle atmosphere composition to strong solar proton event of October 1989. Adv. in Space Res., vol. 21, No 12, 1975-1981, 2001.

Krivolutsky A., Vyushkova T., Dependence of ozone and other species response to annual and interannual variability of atmospheric parameters over Antarctica. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 27, 485-495, 2002.

Krivolutsky, A. A., G. Bazilevskaya, T. Vyushkova, and G. Knayzeva, Influence of cosmic rays on chemical composition of the atmosphere: data analysis and photochemical modeling. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 27, pp. 471-476, 2002.


 

 

 

 

CLIMATE AND ITS CHANGES: DIAGNOSTICS AND MODELING

(1999-2002)

 

I.I. Mokhov

 

A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences,

3 Pyzhevsky, Moscow 119017 (mokhov@ifaran.ru)

 

 

Problem of the possible climate changes is one of the key problem for the XXI century. In the global climate studies a significant role play those related to the Russian observed data analysis. Russia is the largest country in the world stretched from the polar latitudes to the subtropics and from the Atlantics to the Pacific. A large number of regional climate anomalies has been registered at the Russian territory. Additionally, accordingly to the model estimations, the strongest temperature changes related to the global warming are expected to be in high latitude, in particular in Siberia (Climate Change 2001 (a,b,c), 2001).

Essential results of the last decade Russian studies in the field of climate changes and evaluation of their impacts were published in (Global climate changes and their impacts for Russia, 2002; Climate changes and their impacts, 2002).

 

 

Empirical studies, reanalysis and paleoreconstructions

 

Important role in the Russian climate studies play empirical analyses for wide band of time variability ranging from the hundreds of thousand years (Barkov et al., 2002, Kotlyakov and Lorius, 2000; Velichko, 2002) till the climate of last millenia (Klimanov, 2002; Krenke and Chernavskaya, 2002) and more detailed - for the climate of the last two centuries and especially for the climate of the 20th century (Alexeev et al., 2000; Bardin, 2002; Budyko et al., 1999; Gruza and Rankova, 2002; Kiktev et al., 2002; Kitaev, 2002; Mirvis, 2002; Nazarov et al., 2002; Nesterov, 2001; Perevedentsev et al., 2001; Golubev et al., 2001; Groisman and Rankova, 2001; Gulev et al., 2001; Polyakov et al., 2002; Savelieva et al., 2000; Sun et al., 2001; Wiedenmann et al., 2002).

Strong resonance (see, e.g., (Houghton et al., 2001)) have got the results of the multiannual project to drill and analyze the ice core data from the Russian Antarctic Station Vostok. This activity allowed to reconstruct climate changes, e.g. temperature regime, and atmospheric radiative-active constituents content, e.g. carbon dioxide and methane, as well as marine and continental aerosol for the last 420 thousands of years (Barkov et al., 2002, Kotlyakov and Lorius, 2000). These results are of great importance to assess cause-effect relations in the Earth climate system on different time scales including those on the scales of tens of thousands years due to changes in orbital parameters (the Milankovitch cycles) and on much faster scales due to anthropogenic influence during the last century (Mokhov et al., 2002). According to the climate reconstructions from the Vostok ice core data the Holocene continuing about 11 thousand years is the most long interglacial for the last more than 400 thousand years (Kotlyakov and Lorius, 2000).

Strong climate changes have been noted in the XX century, especially during its last few decades, in the regions of Russia (Budyko et al., 1999; Gruza and Rankova, 2002; Mirvis, 2002). Annual mean surface air temperature has increased on about 0.9K in Russia with the strongest growth in Siberia (Gruza and Rankova, 2002). For the second part of the XX century in Siberia the temperature trend of 3.5K/100yr is found. Largest warming for Russia is obtained in winter (4.7K/100yr) and spring (2.9K/100yr).

About 2/3 of the Russia is covered by permafrost (Global Climate Changes and Their Impacts for Russia, 2002; Izrael et al., 2002c; Anisimov et al., 2002). Regime of cryolithozone serves as an important indicator of climatic changes. According to (Pavlov et al., 2002) since the late 1970s the most northern continental areas exert weak tendency of active layer deepening. Tendency of warming for perennially frozen soils is found in the northern part of Western Siberia since the late 1970s. At the same time, in the central Yakutiya despite of the drastic regional climate warming, the latter tendency is weak and inhomogeneous.

According to model simulations the largest temperature changes, related to the anthropogenically induced global warming, have to be exhibited in high latitudes. At that the large variability in polar latitudes with strong interdecadal variations masks tendencies of long-term climate change (Polyakov et al., 2002; Bengtsson et al., 2003; Johannessen et al., 2003). An analysis of interrelations of wintertime climate changes in the Arctic and in the lower latitudes during the XX century is made in (Alexeev et al., 2000).

Studies of the changes in snow cover in the northern Eurasia, alongside with a general tendency for its retreat, exhibited for the last few decades of the XX century the regional increase of snow cover thickness and snow storage at the surface (Krenke et al., 2000). In particular, it is found eastward of the Lena River (Kitaev et al., 2002; Krenke et al., 2001). In contrast in the northern part of North America snow thickness decreases.

In the XX century, especially during the last few decades, statistically significant climate changes are found in different regions. Most significant changes are exhibited for extremal regimes. For example, in (Kiktev et al., 2002) by empirical data for the second half of the XX century it was found that alongside with the general tendency toward warmer and wetter climate a number of statistically significant shifts in extrema have occured. In particular for the Asian part of Russia (excluding Western Siberia) a significant decrease of the number of frost days is exhibited. A tendency for warm nights during the year is also noted, significant for the north-western and Asian parts of Russia. For the European part of Russia (excluding its northernmost parts) a tendency for the number of days with heavy rains is obtained. At that regional tendencies for precipitation intensity increase are found. For the northern and southern (Kuban, Caucasus) regions of the European part of Russia and in the central Siberia the maximal number of dry days decreased.

There is a series of papers devoted to the analysis of peculiarities and regional impact of quasi-cyclic phenomenon El Nino (which is associated with the strongest variations of global surface air temperature on the interannual time scale), North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillations (with strong influence on the Northern Hemisphere climate), quasi-biennial oscillations (Gruza et al., 1999: Mokhov et al., 2000a,b; Nesterov, 2003; Petrosyants and Gushchina, 2002; Gruzdev and Bezverkhny, 2000). Tendencies of change of annual cycle of climate, in particular for surface air temperature, with an analysis of regional processes were studied in (Eliseev et al., 2000; Mirvis, 2002; Eliseev and Mokhov, 2003).

In (Sklyarov, 2001) an analysis of the variations of solar constant for the last two decades of the XX century was performed with a comparison with variations of global surface air temperature. It was noted that the former quantity does not show any drift during this period while the latter has grown.

Alongside with the data of observations the climate variability in the second part of the XX century were analyzed using the data of reanalyses. In particular based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data the changes of extratropical cyclones and blockings, characteristics of the surface air temperature annual cycle and temperature trends at different heights were analyzed (Gulev at al., 2001; Eliseev and Mokhov, 2003; Khan et al., 2003; Wiedenmann et al., 2002; Zveryaev and Chu, 2003).

 

 

 

Theory of climate and climate modelling

 

The role of the climate modelling and model-based diagnosis of past and future climate variations is increasing continiously (Alexeev and Ryabchenko, 2000; Arpe et al., 1999; Volodin, 2000; Galin and Volodin, 2002; Demchenko et al., 2002; Diansky and Volodin, 2002; Dymnikov et al., 2002; Kislov, 2001; Meleshko et al., 2000; Mokhov et al., 2002; Anisimov et al., 2002; Claussen et al., 2002; Eliseev and Mokhov, 2003; Joussaume et al., 1999; Kattsov and Walsh, 2000; Semenov and Bengtsson, 2002). Russian models take part in the international intercomparison projects AMIP, CMIP, PMIP, EMIP (Diansky and Volodin, 2002; Claussen et al., 2002; Joussaume et al., 1999; Walsh et al., 2002).

Climate models can be divided according to their complexity into three classes: conceptual models, models of intermediate complexity and (most detailed) general circulation models (Claussen et al., 2002). Here the model's complexity is characterized by the number of climate variables computed explicitly, by the number of explicitly considered processes and by the complexity of their determination.

State-of-the-art coupled general circulation models allow ones not only to simulate spatial peculiarities of the Earth climate but also realistically reproduce climate changes, both global and regional (Global Climate Changes and Their Impacts for Russia, 2002; Arpe et al., 2000). New results were obtained using different numerical experiments with general circulation models (Arpe et al., 2000; Demchenko et al., 2002; Diansky and Volodin, 2002; Dymnikov et al., 2002; Galin and Volodin, 2002; Kislov, 2001; Meleshko et al., 2000; Volodin, 2000). In (Diansky and Volodin, 2002) the results of CMIP2 numerical experiments with the first Russian coupled general circulation model (CGCM) - INM GCM were presented with the scenario CMIP2. First results of simulations with this model extended by the RSHMU chemistry module (Yudin et al., 2000) were presented in (Galin et al., 2003). In (Meleshko et al., 2000) using the MGO general circulation model an analysis of important climate feedbacks such as cloud-radiative and water vapour feedbacks is performed. Features of annual cycle were studied in (Kurbatkin, 2000). An implementation of the new module for land surface hydrology into the HMC general circulation model allows for realistic simulation of river runoff annual cycle in a number of Siberian regions (Rubinstein and Shmakin, 1999).

A perspective area of climate studies is due to regional climate models (with substantionally increased spatial resolution) coupled to a global (of a relatively coarse resolution) climate model (Krupchatnikov, Fomenko 1999; Shkolnik et al., 2000).

Special class of global climate models consists of the Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) (Claussen et al., 2002; Demchenko et al., 2002; Eliseev and Mokhov, 2003; Ganopolski et al., 2001; Handorf et al., 1999; Mokhov et al., 2002; Petoukhov et al., 2000). The only Russian model of this type participating in the international intercomparison is the IAP RAS climate model (Claussen et al., 2002). This is the first Russian global three-dimensional climate model, which was run under different scenarios of continiously evolving anthropogenic forcing (e.g., CO2 atmospheric content) for the XIX-XXI centuries (Mokhov et al., 2002). EMICs have a rather detailed description of climatic processes and allow one to simulate much larger and longer (in comparison to CGCMs) number of scenarios due to a number of parameterizations and/or relatively coarse spatial resolution.

 

 

Model estimations of possible global and regional climate changes

and their impacts

 

Using global climate models possible regional climate changes are simulated for different scenarios of anthropogenic forcing, e.g. for greenhouse gases atmospheric loading. In particular, in (Anisimov et al., 2002; Demchenko et al., 2002; Izrael et al., 2002; Malevsky-Malevich and Nadezhina, Nelson et al., 2002) possible changes in the permafrost cover are estimated. According to (Demchenko et al., 2002) sensitivity of the area with climate conditions favourable for permafrost scatter significantly between different models but changes only slightly between studied scenarios of anthropogenic forcing, in particular taking and not taking into account aerosol aerosol loading into the atmosphere. A comparison of simulations with the paleoreconsructed data showed that the southern boundary of continious permafrost for the Holocene Optimum is similar to that potentially approached in the middle XXI century if an aerosol loading is taken into account. If this loading is not taken into account these potentially approached conditions are similar to the Eemian Interglacial.

Nagurny et al. (2002) simulated long-term changes in temperature and precipitation in the Arctics under different scenarios of anthropogenically-induced forcing including those due to atmospheric greenhouse-gases and sulfate aerosol content.

According to model simulations alongside with significant interannual and interdecadal variability a general growth of precipitation and river discharge in the watersheds of the Volga river and the Caspian Sea, the Neva river and the Ladoga Lake, Ob, Yenisei and Lena rivers and their variability in the XXI century are projected (Mokhov et al., 2002). Changes in wintertime and summertime precipitation differ substantionally between each other (Semenov and Bengtsson, 2002). In particular, for the central European part of Russia a general increase of precipitation in the XX-XXI centuries accompanied by significant interdecadal variations (Mokhov et a., 2002). It is related mostly to the wintertime precipitation, while the summertime precipitation decreases. At that a general decrease of precipitation is possible in the first quarter of the XXI century. Significant growth is found for precipitation intensity and the number of days with heavy precipitation. At that for the number of days with precipitation an increase of variability in the XXI century in comparison to the XX century is found. According to the model simulations in the XXI century contribution of heavy precipitation into total precipitatuion increases.

Similar model estimations are made also for other regions (Mokhov et al., 2002). For Siberia as a whole and for the Lena river watershed in particular, an increase of total precipitation, heavy precipitation frequency and heavy precipitation intensity is found. Changes in the number of days with precipitation in this region (with its general increase) differ substantionally from those for central European Russia (where an amplitude of variations increases in the XXI century).

It is very important to estimate changes in biologic production under climate changes possible in the XXI century (Golubyatnikov and Denisenko, 2001; Global Climate Changes and Their Impacts for Russia, 2002). Biologic production in the European part of Russia can increase on about 2 ton per hectare per year with a maximum (of about 4 ton per hectare per year) in 60-70N under the CO2 content doubling in the atmosphere (Golubyatnikov and Denisenko, 2001). At that maximum near 50N shifts northward on about 5 degrees in latutude.

 

 

Climate changes and the problem of sustainable development

 

In a number of papers the problem of climate change is discussed in relation to the problem of Kyoto protocol and to the conclusions made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC (Izrael et al., 2001, 2002a,b; Kondratyev and Demirchan, 2001; Kondratyev, 2002). In particular, in (Kondratyev and Demirchan, 2001; Kondratyev, 2002) based on the results of the Third IPCC Assessment (2001), Sixth Conference of the Parties (COP-6), subsequent COP-6.2 in Bonn and World Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio+10) in Johannesburg (2002) the recommendations and mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol about the limitations of the greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere to prohibit global climate changes in the XXI century are discussed. In (Izrael et al., 2002b) the data on greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, as well as HFC, PFC and SF6) emission changes in Russia during 1900-1999 are presented for the first time. Annual mean CO2 sink in the Russian forests is evaluated - about 100 Mt. At that annual mean CO2 loading is evaluated as 450 Mt and emissions due to fires and forest cutting as 50 and 300 Mt per year, respectively. Egorova et al. (2001) estimated of the effect of the Montreal Protocol related to the decrease of stratospheric ozone content found in the late XX century.

Realistic estimation of positive and negative effects of climate change needs interrelated studies of economical, ecological, social and political processes with a systematic modelling both on the global and regional levels. In particular, in (Sustainable Development of Russia and Its Regions, 2001) the project is considered which deals with the systematic interdisciplinar study of sustainable development of Russia in the first quarter of the XXI century related to the problem of the climate change.

 

 

References

 

Alexeev, G.V., E.I. Alexandrov, P.N. Svyashchennikov, and N.E. Kharlanenkova, 2000: Interrelations of climate oscillations in Arctic and middle and low latitudes. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 6, 5-17.

Alexeev, G.V., and V.A. Ryabchenko, 2000. Simulation of interannual variability of thermodynamical and hydrological cycles in the Arctic basin. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 36, 514-525.

Anisimov, O.A., 2002: Consequences of climate changes in cryolithozone regions of the Northern Hemisphere. In: Climate Changes and Their Consequences, St.Petersburg, Nauka, 239-250.

Anisimov, O.A., P.F. Demchenko, A.V. Eliseev, I.I. Mokhov, V.P. Nechaev, and A.A. Velichko, 2002: Influence of climate changes on permafrost in the past, present and future. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 38. Suppl.1,.S25-S39.

Anisimov, O.A., F.E. Nelson, and A.V. Pavlov, 1999: Scenarios of cryolithozone evolution under the global climate changes in the XXI century. Cryosphere of the Earth, 3(4), 15-25.

Anisimov, O.A., A.A. Velichko, P.F. Demchenko, A.V. Eliseev, I.I. Mokhov, and V.P. Nechaev, 2002: Effect of climate change on permafrost in the past, present, and future. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 38, Suppl.1, S25-S39.

Arpe, K., L. Bengtsson, G.S. Golitsyn, I.I. Mokhov, V.A. Semenov, and P.V. Sporyshev, 1999: Analysis and modelling of hydrological cycle changes in the Caspian Sea basin. Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Acad. Sci., 366, 248-252.

Arpe, K., L. Bengtsson, G.S. Golitsyn, I.I. Mokhov, V.A. Semenov, and P.V. Sporyshev, 2000: Connection between Caspian Sea level variability and ENSO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2693-2699.

Arpe, K., L. Bengtsson, G.S. Golitsyn, L.K. Efimova, I.I. Mokhov, V.A. Semenov, and V.Ch. Khon, 2000: Analysis of variation in a hydrological cycle at the Ladoga catchment and in the Neva runoff in the 20th and the 21st centuries with a global climate model. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 12, P.5-13.

Bardin, M.Yu., 2002: Air temperature variability over territories of west Russia and of former soviet countries in the 20th century. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 8, P.5-23.

Barkov, N.I., R.N. Vostretsov, V.Ya. Lipenkov and A.N. Salamatin, 2002: Variations of air temperature and precipitation in the Vostok Station region during four climatic cycles over last 420 thousands years. Arctic and Antarctic, 1(35), 82-97.

Bengtsson, L., V.A. Semenov, and O. Johannesen, 2003: The early century warming in the Arctic A possible mechanism. MPI Rep.345. 31 pp.

Budyko, M.I., N.A. Efimova, and L.A. Strokina, 1999: Empirical estimates of climate change at the end of XX century. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 12, 5-12.

Climate Change 2001 (a): The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Ed. By J.T. Houghton, Y. Ding et al. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 881 pp.

Climate Change 2001 (b): Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Ed. By J.J. McCarthy, O.F. Canziani, N.A. Leary et al. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge.

Climate Change 2001 (c): Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Ed. by B. Metz, O. Davidson et al. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 752 pp.

Climate Changes and Their Consequences for Russia, Moscow, ROOUPPG, 468 pp.

Demchenko, P.F., A.A. Velichko, A.V. Eliseev, I.I. Mokhov, and V.P. Nechaev, 2002: Dependence of permafrost conditions on global warming: Comparison of models, scenarios, and paleoclimatic reconstructions. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 38, 143-151.

Diansky, N.A., and E.M. Volodin, 2002: Simulation of present climate with coupled model of general circulation of atmosphere and ocean. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 38, 824-840.

Dymnikov, V.P., and A.S. Gritsoun, 2001: Climate model attractors: chaos, quasi-regularity and sensitivity to small perturbations of external forcing. Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 8, 201-209.

Dymnikov, V.P., E.M. Volodin, V.Ya. Galin, A.V. Glazunov, N.A. Diansky, V.N. Lykosov, S.N. Moshonkin and A.I. Chavro, 2002: Modelling of present climate and its changes. In: Climate Changes and Their Consequences for Russia, Moscow, ROOUPPG, 255-286.

Egorova, T.A., E.V. Rozanov, I.L. Karol, V.A. Zubov, and S.L. Malyshev, 2002. Modeling of interannual variations of total ozone in 1993-2000 and the effect of ozone-depleting substance production limitations. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 1, 5-13.

Egorova, T.A., E.V. Rozanov, M.E. Schlesinger, N.G. Andronova, S.L. Malyshev, I.L. Karol, and V.A. Zubov, 2001: Assessment of the effect of the Montreal Protocol on atmospheric ozone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2389-2392.

Eliseev, A.V., and I.I. Mokhov, 2003: Amplitude-phase characteristics of the annual cycle of surface air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 10, 1-16.

Eliseev, A.V., I.I. Mokhov and N.Yu. Vakalyuk, 2000: Tendencies of changes in the phase characteristics of the annual cycle of surface air temperature for the Northern Hemisphere. Izvestiya, Atmos.Oceanic Phys., 36, 11-20.

Frolkis, V.A., A.A. Kiselev and I.L. Karol, 1999: Estimation of anthropogenic climate changes from simulated radiative and photochemical processes in the atmosphere. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 35, 401-412.

Galin, V.Ya., and E.M. Volodin, 2002: Modeling of atmospheric response to melting of Arctic sea ice. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 1, 14-21.

Galin, V.Ya., E.M. Volodin, and S.P. Smyshlyaev, 2003: INM RAS atmospheric general circulation model with ozone dynamics. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 5, 13-23.

Ganopolski, A., V. Petoukhov, S. Rahmstorf, V. Brovkin, M. Claussen, A. Eliseev, and C. Kubatzki, 2001: CLIMBER-2: a climate system model of intermediate complexity. Part II: Model sensitivity. Clim. Dyn., 17, 735-751.

Golitsyn, G.S., L.K. Efimova, I.I. Mokhov, V.A. Rumyantsev, N.G. Somova and V.Ch. Khon, 2002: Ladoga and Onega hydrological regimes and their variations. Water Resources, 29, 168-173.

Golitsyn, G.S., I.I. Mokhov and V.Ch. Khon, 2000: Diagnostics and modeling of changes in the hydrologic regime of the Caspian basin in the 20th and 21st centuries. In: Ecological Problems of the Caspian Sea, Moscow, RAS / NAS USA, 28-37.

Golubev, V.S., Lawrimore, J., Groisman, P.Ya., Speranskaya, N.A., Zhuravin, S.A., Menne, M.J., Peterson, T.C., and Malone, R.W. 2002: Evaporation changes over the contiguous United States and the former USSR: New estimates. In: Climate Changes and their consequences, St.Petersburg, Nauka, 221-230.

Golubev, V.S., J.H. Lawrimore, P.Ya. Groisman, N.A. Speranskaya, S.A. Zhuravin, M.J. Menne, T.C. Peterson, and R.W. Malone, 2001: Evaporation changes over the contiguous United States and the former USSR: A reassessment. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2665-2668.

Golubyatnikov, L.L., and E.A. Denisenko, 2001: Response of the net primary production to climate change for the European Russia. Izvestiya, Ser. Georg., 6, 42-50.

Gorbatenko, V.P., I.I. Ippolitov, M.V. Kabanov, S.V. Loginov, M.V. Reshetko, and M.I. taranyuk, 2002: Analysis of the time series structure of recurrence of atmospheric circulation forms and the number of thunderstorm days. Atmos. Oceanic Optics, 15, 693-698.

Groisman, P.Ya., T.R. Karl, R.W. Easterling, R.W. Knight, P.F. Jamason, K.J. Hennessy, R. Suppiah, S.M. Page, J. Wibig, K. Fortunjak, V.N. Razuvaev, A. Douglas, E. Forland, and P.-M. Zhai, 1999: Changes in probability of heavy precipitation: important indicators of climate change. Clim. Change, 42, 243-283.

Groisman, P.Ya., and E.Ya. Rankova, 2001: Precipitation trends over the Russian permafrost-free zone: Removing the artifacts of pre-processing. Intern. J. Climatol., 21, 657-678.

Gruza, G., and E. Rankova, 1999: Climatic response to changes in greenhouse gases concentration as based on the surface air temperature observations over the Russia territory. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 1999, 35, 742-749.

Gruza, G., and E. Rankova, 2002: Monitoring of climate and estimation of climate variability from observations. In: Climate Changes and Their Consequences for Russia, Moscow, ROOUPPG, 9-39.

Gruza, G., and E. Rankova, 2003: Climatic variability and climate changes over the Russia territory. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 39, 2.

Gruza, G.V., E.Ya. Rankova, L.K. Kleshchenko and L.N. Aristova, 1999: The relationship of climatic anomalies over Russian territory with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 5, 32-51.

Gruza, G., E. Rankova, V. Razuvaev, and O. Bulygina, 1999: Indicators of climate change for the Russian Federation. Clim. Change, 42, 219-242.

Gruzdev, A.N., and V.A. Bezverkhny, 2000: Two regimes 0f the quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial stratospheric wind. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 29435-29443.

Gulev, S.K., O. Zolina, and S. Grigoriev, 2001: Extratropical cyclone variability in the Northern Hemisphere winter from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Clim. Dyn., 17, 795-809.

Handorf, D., V.K. Petoukhov, K. Dethloff, A.V. Eliseev, A. Weisheimer, and I.I. Mokhov, 1999: Decadal climate variability in a coupled atmosphere-ocean climate model of moderate complexity. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27253-27275.

Izrael, Yu.A., G.V. Gruza, V.M. Kattsov, and V.P. Meleshko, 2001: Changes of global climate. Role of anthropogenic influences. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol., 5, 5-21.

Izrael, Yu.A., I.M. Nazarov, M.L. Gitarskii, A.I. Nakhutin, and A.F. Yakovlev, 2002a: The Kyoto protocol: ratification problems. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 1, 5-12.

Izrael, Yu.A., I.M. Nazarov, A.I. Nakhutin, A.F. Yakovlev, and M.L. Gitarskii, 2002b: Russias contribution to change of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 5, 17-27.

Izrael, Yu.A., A.V. Pavlov, and Yu.A. Anokhin, 2002: Evolution of permafrost under present-day global climate changes. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 1, 22-34.

Joussaume, S., K.E. Taylor , P. Braconnot, J.F.B. Mitchell, J.E. Kutzbach, S.P. Harrison, I.C. Prentice, A.J. Broccoli, A. Abe-Ouchi, P.J. Bartlein, C. Bonfils, B. Dong, J. Guiot, K. Herterich,  C.D. Hewitt, D. Jolly, J.W. Kim,  A. Kislov,   A. Kitoh, M.F. Loutre,  V. Masson, B. McAvaney, N. McFarlane, N. de Noblet, W.R. Peltier, J.Y. Peterschmitt, D. Pollard, D. Rind, J.F. Royer, M.E. Schlesinger, J. Syktus, S. Thompson, P. Valdes, G. Vettoretti, R.S. Webb, and U. Wyputta, 1999: Monsoon changes for 6000 years ago: results of 18 simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 (7), 859-862.

Karol, I.L., 2000: Influence of flights of the World transport aviation on ozonosphere and climate. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 7, 17-32.

Karol, I.L., 2002. Present state of problem of minor atmospheric components and estimation of their influence on the global climate change. In: Climate changes and their consequences. St. Petersburg, Nauka, 36-44.

Kattsov, V.M., S.V. Vavulin, V.A. Govorkova, and T.V. Pavlova, 2003: Scenarios of the Arctic climate change in the 21st century. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol.

Kattsov, V., and J.E. Walsh, 2000: Twentieth-century trends of Arctic precipitation from observational data and a climate model simulation. J. Climate, 13, 1362-1370.

Khan, V.M., A.M. Sterin and K.G. Rubinstein, 2003: Estimates of temperature trends in free atmosphere from NCAR/NCEP reanalysis and radiosonde data. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol.

Kiktev, D.B., D.M. Sexton, L.V. Alexander and C.K. Folland, 2002: Trends of the precipitation and surface air temperature annual extremes in the second half of the 20th century. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 11, 13-24.

Kislov, A.V., 2001: .. Climate in past, present and future. Moscow, MAIK "Nauka/Interperiodika", 352 pp.

Kitaev, L.M., 2002: Spatial and temporal variability of the snow depth in the Northern Hemisphere. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 5, 28-34.

Kitaev, L., A. Kislov, A. Krenke, V. Razuvaev, R. Martuganov, and I. Konstantinov, 2002: The snow cover characteristics of northern Eurasia and their relationship to climatic parameters. Boreal Environ. Res., 7.

Klimanov, V.A., 2002: Climate of northern Eurasia during neoglacial (about 2500 years before present). Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Acad. Sci., 386, 676-680.

Kondratyev, K.Ya., 1999: Climatic effects of aerosols and clouds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 264 pp.

Kondratyev, K.Ya., 2002: Global climate change: A reality, suggestions and illusions. Earth Res. from Space, 1, 3-23.

Kondratyev, K.Ya., and K.S. Demirchan, 2001: Earth climate and Kyoto Protocol. Bulletin RAS, 71, 1002-1009.

Kondratyev, K.Ya., and Al.A. Grigoryev, 2000. Natural and anthropogenic ecological catastrophes: Meteorological disasters and catastrophes. Earth Res. from Space, 4, 3-19.

Kotlyakov, V.M., 2000: Glaciology of Antarctica. Moscow, Nauka, 2000. 432 pp.

Kotlyakov, V.M., and K. Lorius, 2000: Four climate cycles according to the ice core data from deep drilling at the Vostok station in Antarctica. Izvestiya, Ser. Georgr., 1, 7-19.

Krenke, A.N., L.M. Kitaev, and D.V. Turkov, 2001: Climate role of changes in snow cover during the warming period. Izvestiya, Ser. Georgr., 3, 44-52.

Krenke, A.N., V.N. Razuvaev, L.M. Kitaev, R.A. Martuganov, and M.I. Shakirzyanov, 2000: Snowyness over FSU and its regions territory during the global warming. Cryosphere of the Earth, 4, 97-106.

Krenke, A.N., and M.M. Chernavskaya, 2002: Climate changes during pre-industrial period of last millennium and their manifestations for the Russian plain. In: Climate Changes and Their Consequences for Russia, Moscow, ROOUPPG, 137-173.

Krupchatnikov, V.N., and A.A. Fomenko, 1999: Mathematical modeling of regional climate of Siberia. Atmos. Ocean. Optics, 12, 488-493.

Kurbatkin, G.P., 2000: Large-scale dynamic effects of seasonal heating and cooling of the atmosphere. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 36, 1.

Machulskaya, E.E., and V.N. Lykosov, 2002: Simulation of the thermodynamic response of permafrost to seasonal and interannual variations in atmospheric parameters. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 38, 20-33.

Maistrova, V.V., A.P. Nagurny, and I.I. Bolshakova, 2002: Air temperature variation in the free atmosphere over the north polar region in 1959-2000. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 6, 5-14.

Malevsky-Malevich, S.P., and E.D. Nadezhina, 2002: Estimations of influence of climate change on permafrost in Russia based on model scenarios of climate change. In: Climate changes and their consequences. St. Petersburg, Nauka, 231-238.

Meleshko, V.P., V.M. Kattsov, P.V. Sporyshev, S.V. Vavulin, and V.A. Govorkova, 2000. Feedbacks in climate system: Interaction of cloudiness, water vapour and radiation. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 2, 22-45.

Milly, P.C.D., and A.B. Shmakin, 2002: Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part I: The land dynamics (LaD) model. J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 283-299.

Mirvis, V.M., 2002: Regularities of change of the air temperature regime for territory of Russia during last century. In: Climate changes and their consequences. St. Petersburg, Nauka, 105-116.

Mokhov, I.I., V.A. Bezverkhny, and A.A. Karpenko, 2002: Evolution of climatic characteristics and atmospheric components at Milankovitch scales from Vostok ice core. Research Activities in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling. H. Ritchie (ed.). Rep. No.32. WMO/TD-No.1105.

Mokhov, I.I., V.A. Bezverkhny, and A.A. Karpenko, 2002: Milankovitch cycles and evolution of characteristics of climate regime and atmospheric components by ice core data from Antarctic station Vostok. Data of Glaciol. Studies., 2003.

Mokhov, I.I., J.-L. Dufresne, V.Ch. Khon, H. Le Treut, and V.A. Tikhonov, 2002: Regional regimes with drought and extreme wet conditions: Possible changes in XXI century from IPSL-CM2 simulations. Research Activities in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling. H. Ritchie (ed.). Rep. No.32, WMO/TD-No.1105, 07.31-07.32.

Mokhov, I.I., A.V. Eliseev, D. Handorf, V.K. Petoukhov, K. Dethloff, A. Weisheimer, and D.V. Khvorostyanov, 2000: North Atlantic Oscillation: Diagnosis and modelling of decadal variability and its long-term evolution. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 36, 605-616.

Mokhov, I.I., A.V. Eliseev, and D.V. Khvorostyanov, 2000: Evolution of characteristics of interannual climate variability associated with the El Nino and La Nina phenomena. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 36, 741-751

Mokhov, I.I., and V.K. Petoukhov, 2000: Atmospheric centers of action and tendencies of their change. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 36, 321-329.

Mokhov, I.I., P.F. Demchenko, A.V. Eliseev, V.Ch. Khon, and D.V. Khvorost'yanov, 2002: Estimation of global and regional climate changes during the 19th-21st centuries on the basis of the IAP RAS model with consideration for anthropogenic forcing. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 38, 555-568.

Mokhov, I.I., V.A. Semenov and V.Ch. Khon, 2003: Estimates of possible regional hydrologic regime changes in the 21st century based on global climate models. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 39, 130-144.

Mokhov, I.I., and V.Ch. Khon, 2002: Hydrological regime in basins of Siberian rivers: Model estimates of changes in the 21st century. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 8, 77-93.

Monin, A.S., and Ya.A. Shishkov, 2000: Climate as a problem of physics. Physics-Uspekhi, 43(4), 381-406.

Nagurny, A.P., E.V. Rozanov, T.A. Egorova, and E.Yu. Medvedchenko, 2002: Model estimates of long-period changes of temperature and precipitation in the Arctic under different scenarios of possible changes of greenhouse gases and aerosol concentrations. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 1, 35-45.

Nelson, F.E., O.A. Anisimov, and N.I. Shiklomanov, 2002: Climate change and hazard zonation in the circum-Arctic permafrost regions. Natural Hazards, 26(3), 203-225.

Nesterov, E.S., 2001: Low-frequency variability of atmospheric circulation and the Caspian Sea level in the second half of the 20th century. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 11, 27-36.

Perevedentsev, Yu.P., M.A. Vereshchagin, E.P. Naumov, and K.M. Shantalinsky, 2001. long-term fluctuations of basic characteristics of hydrometeorological regime of Volga River basin. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 10, 16-23.

Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappelaz, J. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V.Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pepin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard, 1999: Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420000 years from the Vostok ice core. Nature, 399, 429-436.

Petoukhov, V., A. Ganopolski, V. Brovkin, M. Claussen, A. Eliseev, K. Kubatzki, and S. Rahmstorf, 2000: CLIMBER-2: A climate system model of intermediate complexity. Part I: model description and performance for present climate. Clim. Dyn., 16, 1-17.

Petrosyants, M.A., and D.Yu. Gushchina, 2002: Determination of the El Nino and La Nina events. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 8, 24-35.

Polyakov, I.V., G.V. Alekseev, R.V. Bekryaev, U. Bhatt, R.L. Colony, M.A. Johnson, V.P. Karklin, A.P. Makshtas, D. Walsh, and A.V. Yulin, 2002: Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1878-1881.

Popova, V.V., and A.B. Shmakin, 2003: Influence of the North-Atlantic Oscillation on the multiyear hydrological and thermal regime of Northern Eurasia: I. Statistical analysis of observational data. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 5, 62-74.

Rubinstein, K.G., and A.S. Ginzburg, 2003: Estimates of change of air temperature and precipitation in big cities (in Moscow and NewYork, as an example). Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 2, 21-38.

Rubinstein, K.G., and A.B. Shmakin, 1999: Seasonal variations of large-scale river runoff in the global atmospheric general circulation model of the Hydrometeorological Center of Russia. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 4, 47-59.

Ryabchenko, V.A., G.V. Alexeev, I.A. Neelov, and A.Yu. Dvornikov, 2001. Modelling of rivers water distribution in the Arctic basin. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 9, 61-68.

Savelieva, N.I., I.P. Semiletov, L.N. Vasilevskaya, and S.P. Pugach, 2000: A climate shift in seasonal values of meteorological and hydrological parameters for Northeastern Asia. Progress Oceanogr., 47, 279-297.

Semenov, S.M., and E.S. Gelver, 2002: Change of the annual cycle of daily mean air temperature for the territory of Russia in the XX century. Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Acad. Sci., 386, 389-394.

Semenov, V.A., and L. Bengtsson, 2002: Secular trends in daily precipitation characteristics: greenhouse gas simulation with a coupled AOGCM. Clim. Dyn., 19, 123-140.

Semenov, V.A., and L. Bengtsson, 2003: Modes of the wintertime Arctic temperature variability. MPI Rep.343, 18 pp.

Shkolnik, I.M., V.P. Meleshko and T.V. Pavlova, 2000: Regional hydrodynamic atmospheric model for climate studies for the territory of Russia. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 4, 32-49.

Shkolnik, I.M., 2001: About climate modeling on restricted territory. Trudy GGO, 550, 110-126.

Sklyarov, Yu.A., 2001: Long term solar trend and global temperature. Earth Res. Space, 6, 11-17.

Shmakin, A.B., A.N. Krenke, A.Yu. Mikhailov, and D.V. Turkov, 2001: Role of landscape structure of the land in the climate system. Izvestiya, Ser. Geogr., 3, 38-43.

Shmakin, A.B., and V.V. Popova, 2003: Influence of the North-Atlantic Oscillation on the multiyear hydrological and thermal regime of Northern Eurasia: II. Modeling of secular variations of the heat/water balance. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 6, 59-68.

Sonechkin, D.M., and N.M. Datsenko, 2000: Wavelet analysis of nonstationary and chaotic time series with an application to the climate change problem. Pure Appl. Geophys., 157, 653-677.

Sperber, K.R., C. Brankovic, M. Deque, C.S. Frederiksen, R. Graham, A. Kitoh, C. Kobayashi, T. Palmer, K. Puri, W. Tennant, and E.M. Volodin, 2000: Dynamical seasonal predictability of the Asian summer monsoon. PCMDI Rep. No.56, Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab. Livermore, USA, 56 pp.

Sterin, A.M., 1999: Analysis of linear trends of temperature series for free atmosphere during 1958-1997. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 5, 52-68.

Sun, B., P.Ya. Groisman P.Ya., and I.I. Mokhov, 2001: Recent changes in cloud type frequency and inferred increases in convection over the United States and the Former USRR. J. Climate, 14, 1864-1880.

Vakulenko, N.V., A.S. Monin and D.M. Sonechkin, 2003: Evidence of internal regularity of climate oscillations in Holocene. Transactions (Doklady) Rus. Acad. Sci., 389, 5.

Velichko, A.A., 2002: Long-term climate changes; paleoclimates of epochs of global warming close to expected in XXI century. In: Climate Changes and Their Consequences for Russia, Moscow, ROOUPPG, 107-136.

Volodin, E.M., 2000. Sensitivity of stratosphere and mesosphere to observed change of ozone concentration and carbon dioxide from simulations of the INM GCM. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 36, 617-625.

Volodin, E.M., and V.Ya. Galin, 1999: Interpretation of winter warming on Northern Hemisphere continents in 1977-1994. J. Climate, 12, 2947-2955.

Volodin, E.M., and G. Schmitz, 2001: A troposphere-stratosphere-mesosphere general circulation model with parameterization of gravity waves: climatology and sensitivity studies. Tellus, 53a, 300-316.

Walsh, J.E., V.M. Kattsov, W.L. Chapman, V. Govorkova, and T. Pavlova, 2002: Comparison of Arctic climate simulations by uncoupled and coupled global models. J. Climate, 15, 1429-1446.

Wiedenmann, J.M., A.R. Lupo, I.I. Mokhov, and E.V. Tikhonova, 2002: The climatology of blocking anticyclones for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres: Block intensity as a diagnostic. J. Climate, 15, 3459-3473.

Yudin, V.A., S.P. Smyshlyaev, M.A. Geller, and V.L. Dvortsov, 2000: Transport diagnostics of GCMs and implications for 2-D chemistry-transport model of troposphere and stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 673-699.

Zakharov, V.F., and V.N. Malinin, 2000: Sea Ice and Climate. Saint-Petersburg, Gidrometeoizdat, 91 pp.

Zubakov, V.A., 2001: Climate in history of biosphere. Vestnik RAS, 71, 130-138.

Zveryaev, I.I., and P.-S. Chu, 2003: Recent climate changes in precipitable water in the global tropics as revealed in National Centers for Environmental Prediction / National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 108D, 4311, doi:10.1029/2002JD002476, 2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DYNAMIC METEOROLOGY

 

 

M.V. Kurgansky1 and M. Tolstykh2

 

 

1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences,

3 Pyzhevsky, Moscow 119017, Russia (kurgansk@udec.cl)

2Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences,

Gubkina 8, 119991 Moscow GSP-1, Moscow, Russia (tolstykh@inm.ras.ru)

 

 

 

Stability and sensitivity of the atmosphere

 

 

The response of a system of equations describing the dynamics of a baroclinic atmosphere to small external forcing of an arbitrary form is studied. The possibility of predicting the response on the basis of simplified models constructed from model data is considered. With the aid of the Monte-Carlo method, the operator of the model response to the small external forcing is directly calculated. It is shown that this operator can be assumed to be linear in a wide range of variation of the perturbation norm. The maximum response of the system is close to the first low-frequency empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of the system. In order to predict the sensitivity of the model system, a linear dynamicstochastic model is constructed whose low-frequency variability is identical to that of the original system. The linear operator of such a model, in which the right-hand side is a random process, can be calculated from model data. A comparison between the linear operator, which controls the response of the original system to small external forcing, and the operator of the linear model shows that their singular vectors are close. Hence, in order to predict the sensitivity of the model in question, one can use its dynamicstochastic analogue. Moreover, the autocovariance matrix of the right-hand side of the linear model can be taken to be equal to cI, where c is a number and I the identity matrix. The consequence of this result is that the maximum response of the linear system, as well as the maximum response of the original system, falls at the first low-frequency EOF of model circulation (Gritsun and Dymnikov, 1999).

The class of adjoint equations for hydrodynamic-type systems is investigated. Such equations are used to construct new integral invariants. A subclass of adjoint equations is singled out whose solutions are Lyapunov stable regardless of theirs stability respective to the original system (Dymnikov, 2001).

A study was conducted showing that the fluctuationdissipation relation (FDR) can be used to reconstruct the dynamic response of the atmosphere to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The study was based on numerical results produced by the atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences. A Monte Carlo numerical experiment was performed to trace the evolution of the model response to a prescribed SST anomaly. The response was reconstructed by applying an FDR-based relation derived via introducing several assumptions on the spatial-temporal structure of correlations in the atmosphere. A small perturbation of the dynamic forcing associated with the SST anomaly was specified as a rapidly forming response in the tropics (localized response) normalized by the period of its development. A method for selecting an optimal basis for calculations is discussed. The reconstructed response was shown to agree with the response calculated by averaging over a large ensemble of realizations. The proposed technique gives the correct temporal behavior of the response (Glazunov and Dymnikov, 2002).

 

Tropical Cyclones: Statistical Regularities of Distribution Functions

Depending on Intensity and Lifetime

 

The analysis of characteristic features of tropical cyclones is carried out on the basis of multiyear data. In particular, the distribution functions of these cyclones depending on intensity and lifetime are analyzed for different ocean basins. It is found that the exponential functions rather than power ones are typical for the distribution of a number of tropical cyclones with respect to their lifetime and intensity. It is shown that corresponding cumulative distributions are also well approximated with exponential functions in sufficiently large range of values for intensity and lifetime of tropical cyclones (Golitsyn et al., 1999).

 

Atmospheric Centers of Action and Tendencies of Their Change

 

Tendencies of change in the characteristics of atmospheric centers of action (ACAs) in the Northern Hemisphere are analyzed using empirical data over the period 18911995. The results are compared to model estimates. The hydrostatic equation is used to obtain the simplest model estimates. A more detailed model is based on the consideration of quasi-stationary Rossby waves on a sphere at the equivalent-barotropic level. For the mode with meridional wave number 5 and zonal wave number 2, which makes a major contribution to the formation of Northern Hemisphere ACAs, the coupled dynamics of the pressure and temperature fields at the equivalent-barotropic level is analyzed analytically. The interrelation between the corresponding surface fields is estimated with allowance for a functional relationship between the tropospheric temperature lapse rate and the surface air temperature. The resulting model expressions can be used for a qualitative analysis of the relative role of various climatic variables in the formation of the sensitivity of ACA characteristics to global changes, both anthropogenic, caused by changes in the atmospheric contents of greenhouse gases and aerosol, and natural, associated, for example, with phenomena like El Niño. Model estimates are used to explain a possible strengthening of ACA intensity under global warming of the climate, which is detected, in particular, for the wintertime Siberian High by analyzing empirical data. The corresponding tendencies of change in the ACA location (latitude and longitude) are estimated (Mokhov and Petukhov, 2000).

 

 

The Climatology of Blocking Anticyclones for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres: Block Intensity as a Diagnostic

 

A 30-yr climatology of blocking events was compiled by stratifying the data into seasonal and three regional categories for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres using the NCEPNCAR reanalysis. Several characteristics of blocking anticyclones were included in the study and these were frequency of occurrence, preferred formation regions, duration, blocking days, and intensity. The block intensity (BI) calculation was modified successfully from a previous study in order to automate the procedure for use with large datasets, and it is applied for the first time to derive a long-term observational record of this quantity. This modification also makes BI suitable for its use as a diagnostic tool. Blocking events in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere were the most persistent and strongest during the cold season and over the Atlantic (Pacific) region, as found using BI as the blocking action measure.

The characteristics of blocking events derived in this study were compared to previous long-term climatological studies and across each hemisphere. It was found that the temporal and spatial distributions in both hemispheres were similar to those of longer-term studies. The interannual variability of blocking was also examined with respect to ENSO-related variability for the entire blocking year. It was found that Northern (Southern) Hemisphere blocking events were stronger and more frequent during La Niña (El Niño) years, a result that is consistent with cyclone variability level in each hemisphere. Additionally, these results were compared with previously published studies of interannual variability in blocking occurrence (Wiedenmann et al., 2002).

 

 

Study of Extreme Weather Events and Development of the Theory of Adiabatic Invariants

 

In 1999-2002 research efforts have been concentrated on the study of extreme weather events, with emphasis on tornadic vortices. A modification of turbulent dynamo model has been proposed in (Kurgansky, 1999) to explain the initial tornado-like vortex formation, which takes place in the foot of a rotating storm. General thermodynamically and fluid dynamically based arguments have been given to construct a simple version of similarity theory for the mature, quasi-steady stage of a helical moist-convective vortex. On this basis, a steady reference distribution of tornadic vortices with respect to the Fujita scale wind speed has been introduced and critically compared with some statistical data on tornadoes over the territory of Russia and also USA (Kurgansky, 2000). A general review of physical and fluid dynamical processes, which may explain the tornadoes genesis and maintenance, have been given in (Kurgansky, 2001).

A general theory of adiabatic invariants of the atmospheric fluid motion has been further developed, with the focus on a fundamental notion of the Ertel potential vorticity (PV). It has been proposed (Kurgansky and Pisnichenko, 2000) to use the properly (optimally) modified Ertel PV as a climate variable, and a negative-exponential distribution of the atmospheric mass on modified Ertel PV values has been introduced as the best fit to observational data. This adiabatic invariant theory has been summarized in (Kurgansky, 2002); its implications to an oceanographic problem of the absolute fluid motion determination have been given in (Kurgansky et al., 2002).

 

 

Effect of Helicity in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

 

Ekman spiral flow in the planetary boundary layer (Ekman flow) is helical and obviously produces helicity of the turbulent flow component. In its turn, the helical properties of turbulence may change the structure of the Reynolds stress tensor, which affects steady-state regimes, including the Ekman flow itself. The self-consistent, semi-empirical model of the Ekman boundary layer with allowance for the helicity of the turbulent velocity field has been constructed (Chkhetiani, 2001). Helicity reduces the mean turbulent energy, modifies the Ekman flow, diminishes the deflection angle of the Ekman spiral and increases the effective height of the boundary layer. These effects directly manifest the reduction of the energy flux toward the small scales in helical turbulence.

In (Ponomarev et al., 2003), the stability of the modified Ekman flow is considered. The account for turbulent helicity raises an inflection-point-instability threshold, compared to the previous results. On the contrary, the threshold for parallel instability is slightly lowered. There are changes in scales and orientation of the unstable modes. The comparison with classical and modern boundary layer models and also with observation data on secondary roll circulation is discussed.

 

 

Parameterizations of Boundary Layers

 

The new parameterization is developed for use in the Global Circulation Models. The closure scheme uses the turbulent kinetic energy balance, Kolmogorov hypothesis and includes generalization of the von Kármán hypothesis onto the stratification case. Numerical solutions are provided through the universal non-dimensional functions (UNFs) using the similarity theory, where UNFs of the real planetary boundary layer (disturbed by baroclinicity, vertical circulation and by quasi-stationary change of the boundary parameters) are split into combinations that depend only on two non-dimensional parameters. The coupled system of atmospheric and oceanic governing equations is closed via the local balances of surface heat and mass. Broad family of tests demonstrates good agreements with data (Dethloff et al., 2001; Makshtas et al., 2002).

 

 

A Turbulence Closure for the Convective Boundary Layer

Based on a Two-Scale Mass-Flux Approach

 

The closure problem for the convective turbulence of the shear-free and low-to-moderate wind atmospheric boundary layer is considered. Non-Gaussian parameterizations are developed for fourth-order moments based on a two-scale mass-flux approach. With this approach the ballistic stirring of a fluid by coherent structures is taken into account and the differences in the horizontal scales and spacing of the velocity and temperature fields are recognized. The fractional coverage of positive temperature variations is introduced, as well as the fractional coverage of positive vertical velocity fluctuations. The parameterizations are compared to those of the traditional mass-flux scheme and of the classical eddy-damped quasi-normal approach, and the principal similarities and dissimilarities are outlined. The results of testing the parameterizations against aircraft measurements at moderate wind and against large eddy simulation data of free convective conditions show good agreement between model predictions and data (Gryanik and Hartmann, 2002).

 

 

"Negative Heat Capacity" of Stratified Two-Component Geophysical Media

(Moist Air and Salt Water)

 

The development of turbulent convection in the stratified moist air or salt water heated from below or cooled from above is considered. To describe the turbulent convective exchange, one uses an approach based on semi-empirical theory of turbulence and dimensionality/similarity arguments. The known analytical models of the convection arising from isolated heat-sources (convective plumes and thermals) are extended to the situations when the medium is stratified on both hydrodynamic components. It has been shown that for a two-component medium, the temperature field solutions exist, which are radically different from the known earlier (for one-component medium). It has been shown, that the addition of the stable salinity stratification to the pre-existing stable temperature stratification can result in the essential increase in the amplitude and penetration depth of the thermal disturbances arising due to the inhomogeneities at the surface. The situations are feasible, when the sign of temperature disturbances at the water surface layer is opposite to the sign of stationary disturbance of the given heat inflow at the surface area. Similar effects are possible in the atmosphere surface layer taking into account the moisture stratification (Ingel, 2001).

 

 

The Previously Unexplored Mechanism of a Convective Instability

 

A previously unexplored mechanism of convective instability in the two-component media and near water-air interface has been found. This is a mechanism of convective instability of the atmospheric boundary layer over a water mass. In the air, stratified by moisture, vertical motions produce variations in specific humidity (mixing ratio) near the interface surface. This, in turn, causes variations in evaporation from the water surface and horizontal thermal inhomogeneities that can, under certain conditions, strengthen the initial vertical motions. In (Ingel, 2002), the linear stability problem for the system under consideration is solved. The results show the possibility of the development of disturbances with horizontal scales of several hundred meters for a period of about one hour even for a stable stratified atmospheric layer over a water surface and in the absence of destabilizing velocity shears.

 

 

The semi-Lagrangian vorticity-divergence variable resolution model

 

The global finite-difference semi-Lagrangian variable resolution numerical weather prediction model is developed and tested (Tolstykh, 2001). The distinct features of the presented model are the use of vorticity and divergence as prognostic variables in conjunction with the fourth-order compact finite differences on the unstaggered regular latitude-longitude grid. This model uses the set of parameterizations for subgrid scale processes from French operational ARPEGE/IFS model. The results of the standard test set for shallow water equations on the sphere demonstrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the 2D version of the model with the time steps several times greater than in Eulerian model (Tolstykh, 2002).

 

 

 

 

References

 

Chkhetiani O.G., 2001: On the helical nature of the Ekman boundary layer, Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 37, 615-622.

Dethloff, K., C. Abegg, A. Rinke, I. Hebestadt, and V. F. Romanov, 2001: Sensitivity of Arctic climate simulations to different boundary-layer parameterizations in a regional climate model. Tellus, 53A, 1-26.

Dymnikov, V. P., 2001: Adjoint Equations for Hydrodynamic-Type Systems. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 37, 426-429.

Glazunov, A. V, and V. P. Dymnikov, 2002: Reproduction of the Atmospheric Response to Tropical Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies by Means of a FluctuationDissipation Relation. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 38, 385-396.

Golitsyn, G. S., P. F. Demchenko, I. I. Mokhov, and S. G. Priputnev, 1999: Tropical cyclones: Statistical regularities of distribution functions depending on intensity and lifetime. Transactions (Doklady) of RAS / Earth Science Section, 366, 537-542.

Gritsun, A. S., and V. P. Dymnikov, 1999: Barotropic Atmosphere Response to Small External Actions: Theory and Numerical Experiments. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 35, 511-525.

Gryanik, V.M. and J. Hartmann, 2002: A Turbulence Closure for the Convective Boundary Layer Based on a Two-Scale Mass-Flux Approach. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 27292744.

Ingel, L.Kh., 2001: Influence of Humidity Stratification on the Dynamics of Convective Plumes and Thermals in the Atmosphere, Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 37, 592-598.

Ingel, L.Kh., 2002: Features of Turbulent Convection in a Two-Component Medium. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 38,440-446.

Kurgansky, M.V., 1999: Vorticity genesis in the moist atmosphere. Phys. Chem. Earth (B), 24, 959-961.

Kurgansky, M.V., 2000: Statistical distribution of intense moist-convective helical vortices in the atmosphere. Doklady Acad. Sci., 371, 240-242.

Kurgansky, M.V., and I.A. Pisnichenko, 2000: Modified Ertel's potential vorticity as a climate variable. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 822-835.

Kurgansky, M.V, 2001: Physics of the tornado. In: Natural Disasters of Russia, Eds. V.I. Osipov and S. Shoigu. Publishing House Kruk, Moscow, 182-196 (in Russian).

Kurgansky, M.V., 2002: Adiabatic Invariants in Large-Scale Atmospheric Dynamics. Taylor & Francis, London and New York, 202 pp.

Kurgansky, M.V., G. Budillon, and E. Salusti, 2002: On tracers and potential vorticities in ocean dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3562-3577.

Makshtas, A.P., S.V. Shoutilin, and V.F. Romanov, 2002: Sensitivity of modeled sea ice to external forcing and parameterizations of heat exchange processes. Ice in the Environment: Proc. Of the 16th IAHR Int, Symp. on Ice, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2-6 Dec., 2002, 90-98.

Mokhov, I.I., and V. K. Petukhov, 2000: Atmospheric Centers of Action and Tendencies of Their Change. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 36, 292-299.

Ponomarev, V.M., A.A. Khapaev, and O.G. Chkhetiani, 2003: Helical structures in the Ekman boundary layer. Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 39.

Tolstykh, M.A., 2001: Semi-Lagrangian high resolution model for numerical weather prediction. Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol., 4, 1-9.

Tolstykh, M.A., 2002: Vorticity-divergence semi-Lagrangian shallow-water model on the sphere based on compact finite differences. J. Comput. Phys., 179, 180-200.

Wiedenmann, J.M., A.R. Lupo, I.I. Mokhov, and E.V. Tikhonova, 2002: The climatology of blocking anticyclones for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres: Block intensity as a Diagnostic. J. Climate, 15, 3459-3473

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE METEOROLOGY

 

A.A. Krivolutsky

 

Central Aerological Observatory,

Pervomayskaya Str. 3, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, Russia (alkriv@netclub.ru)

 

 

During 1999-2002 Russian scientists used actively the cooperation with partners from Europe and United States as well as support from Russian Science Foundation. Some interesting results have been obtained in Middle atmosphere studies. Now we will make a focus on long-term variability of middle atmosphere parameters and the effects of solar activity and of cosmic influence in general. The processes in the D-region of ionosphere will be included partly also. We did not include the problem of ozone change here (see Part Atmospheric Ozone of this issue).

 

1. LONG-TERM VARIABILITY

The problem of climate variability of the middle and higher atmosphere ( in range 20-300 km) was out of the focus of the investigators up to the beginning of 80th. Long-term effects in this range of altitudes, not connected to 11-cycle of solar activity, has been revealed only in the beginning of 90th. Then different groups announced about the results, which demonstrated such variability in different parameters of the atmosphere based on measurements by different methods and instruments. Several Russian groups had it own observations and initiated the organization International Meeting Cooling and subsidence of the middle and higher atmosphere (Moscow, 6-10 July 1998; see Review published by Golitsyn and Givishvili, 1999).

This Workshop shows the future directions and focuses for observations, data analysis, and numerical modeling. Now we will describe briefly obtained results after Meeting in Moscow.

1.1 Temperature (observations)

Long-term temperature trends in the range of altitudes between 25-110 km have been studied on the basis of rocket, radiophysical and optical Russian measurements for middle latitudes (Lysenko et al, 1999), and 1955-1995 period. It was shown that the levels of fixed temperature has negative trends in the middle and higher atmosphere. Negative temperature trend (0.1-09 K/Y ) during last decade between 25-100 km and positive trend (0.8 K/Y) at 110 km was found. It was suppose that positive trend in temperature at 110 km was caused by a subsidence of the atmosphere.

Long term data of auroral ray heights according to Stormers measurements have been analyzed with removing regular seasonal and solar activity variations (Starkov et al., 2000). The result reveals a lon-term linear negative trend of mean auroral heights (-0.8 km/y and -0.5 km/y) at heights 160-180 km during the period from 1918 till 1944 and at 145 km for the period from 1957 till 1988, respectively. There is satisfactory agreement with the atmospheric subsidence for the period 1918-1944 and 1955-1995. Thus, there was a stable process of middle and upper atmospheric cooling and subsidence over the 20th century.

Seasonal dependence of the temperature trends in the mesosphere have been investigated on the basis of OH emission measurements at different locations (Golitsyn et al., 2000). Negative temperature trend for winter seasons (-0.92 K/Y) has been detected, but practically zero trend was found for summer. Amplitudes and phases of seasonal harmonics were calculated for maximum and minimum of solar cycles. Obtained results based on hydrogen radicals emissions jointly with rocket and radiozonde observations would be useful for the construction of new empirical models of the temperature regime of the middle atmosphere.

The velocity of atmospheric subsidence and the magnitudes of temperature trends was investigated also in the middle atmosphere and lower thermosphere (Semenov et al., 2000; Semenov et al., 2002) on the basis of temperature measurements not only in Russia, but at several points in different countries including lidar observations in Brazil. In accordance to lidar observations close correlation between temperature and Na content exists and developed regression model gives good correspondence for temperature with the temperature obtained by another methods near 92 km level. The important result of this study is the estimation of the atmospheric subsidence. For example, such subsidence at the level of NCL (82-83 km) equals about -50 m/Y. So, respective trend in atmospheric density at these altitudes is -1.5% per year. At the same time the increasing of solar activity (if we use rather short intervals for analysis) leads to compensation of described atmospheric subsidence, and, thus, the level of NLC may be practically constant.

Excellent Review devoted to temperature trends was published due to the efforts and help from different groups and personals (Ramaswamy et al., 2001) including results obtained by scientists from Russia. In Review the long-term trends from approximately the mid-1960s to the mid-1990s period was presented. The stratosphere has, in general, undergone considerable cooling over the past 3 decades. At northern midlatitudes the lower stratosphere cooling over the 1979-1994 period is strikingly coherent among the various data sets with regard to magnitude and statistical significance. A substantial cooling occurs in polar lower stratosphere during winter-spring; however, there is a large dynamical variability in the northern polar region. The vertical profile of the annual mean stratospheric temperature change in the northern midlatitude over the 1979-1994 period is robast among the different data sets, with 0.75 K/decade cooling in the 20 to 35-km region and increasing cooling above (e.g., 2.5 K/decade at 50 km). Model investigations into the cause or causes of the observed temperature trends are also reviewed. Simulations based on on the known changes in species concentrations indicate that the depletion of lower stratospheric ozone is the major radiative factor in according for the 1979-1990 cooling trend in the global, annual-mean lower stratosphere (to 0.6 K/decade), with a substantially lesser contribution by the well-mixed greenhouse gases. Ozone loss is also an important causal factor in the latitude-month pattern of the lower stratospheric cooling trend. Uncertainties arise due to incomplete knowledge of the vertical profile of ozone loss near the tropopause. In the middle and upper stratosphere, both well-mixed greenhouse gases and ozone changes contribute in an important manner to the cooling, but model simulations underestimate the observed decadal-scale trend. While there is a lack of reliable information on water vapor changes over the 1980s decade, satellite measurements in the early to middle 1990s indicate increases in water vapor that could be a significant contributor to the cooling of the global lower stratosphere.

Long-term variations of atmospheric temperature at different isobaric surfaces above central Antarctica were studied also (Makarova and Shirochkov, 2002). Data of balloon sounding at two Antarctic stations Vostok and Amundsen-Scott (South Pole) taken for the last 40 years were used in this study. It was found that stratospheric temperature at both stations averaged seasonally or annually does not demonstrate any meaningful correlation with correspondent sunspot number variations, but the correlation with solar wind was found. At both geographic poles, stratospheric temperature had the tendency to warming in 1972-1995. On the other hand, temperature data for Vostok demonstrates clear tendency to cooling for the same period. Authors give possible explanation for the difference in temperature tendency for south pole and Vostok station by the existence of different electrical parameters at these points.

 

1.2 Other parameters (observations)

It should be mentioned that the essential part of the results of long-term measurements of the temperature are based on systematic analysis of the long-term observations of the emissions of hydroxyl and atomic oxygen 557.7 nm which give the possibility to create empirical models for intensities, temperatures and heights of the emissive layers. It was established that regular occurrence of the temperature maximum for heights of 85-95 km with the period of solar activity exists (Shefov et al., 2000). Distribution with height of the atomic oxygen concentration for low and high solar activity conditions have been calculated on the basis of an empirical model of 557.7 nm emission variations and its photochemical theory. It was shown that there is the distinct correlation between an increment of the temperature and the density of the atomic oxygen. Apparently, a reaction of CO2 with O2 causes this phenomenon. Additionally, on the basis on rocket and lidar data about regular variations of the Na maximum and vertical distribution of its emission in range 589-589.6 nm, a linear approximations (variations of Na during night, seasonal variations, variations in solar cycle, long-term trend) have been obtained, as well as empirical model of oxygen emission variations (Shefov et al. 2000; Fishkova et al., 2000, 2001a, 2001b).

Russian rocket data for the period 1969-1993 was used to estimates linear trends in pressure and density in addition to temperature trends. Four points of rocket sounding locations at high (both hemispheres), middle and low (northern hemisphere) latitudes were used for analysis. Linear regression model which included seasonal harmonic, 11-solar cycle and equatorial wind QBO were included in the model as well as linear trend. The results (Glazkov et al., 1999) show that negative trend in both parameters above exists with increasing magnitude above 30 km (zero trends) to its maximum in the mesosphere (-0.5 %/Y in density and about -1.0%/Y for pressure at mid-latitudes). So, these results support the idea of the atmospheric subsidence mentioned above. The results obtained in this paper (Glazkov et al., 1999) leads also to the idea that pressure or density long-term deficit may causes disturbances in photochemistry of the mesosphere and corresponding trends in ozone and other species content (Krivolutsky 1999; Krivolutsky et al., 2002). Calculated changes in ozone content in the mesosphere are similar to observed ozone trends. Negative trend of ozone was also found in the mesosphere on the basis of empirical model of hydroxyl emission, atomic sodium, oxygen emission and analytical photochemical model (Shefov and Semenov, 2002).

The only direct and long-term measurements of electron density in the lower ionosphere were made aboard rockets. However, such measurements are snapshots and, therefore, it is practically impossible to find a long series of observations under the same or comparable conditions. To eliminate this difficulty, a method developed by Danilov (1997) for E-region was useful. Positive trends in electron density was found (Danilov and Smirnova, 1999). Only non-winter data were used for analysis. The winter time trend at 80 km is stronger, but with much larger scatter of data. At 85 km the trend is weaker than at 80 km, and at 90 km the trend becomes insignificant. The observed by the authors positive trends in electron densities are consistent with the reported by another authors trend of decrease of the phase reflection heights. They are qualitatively consistent with the idea of thermal shrinking of the mesosphere and thermosphere as a consequence of cooling by greenhouse gases.

 

 

2. Dynamics

 

Dynamical processes in the middle atmosphere were in the focus of different groups in Russia. Russian scientists participated and were active also in different International scientific meetings presenting their results.

One of the important part of this activity was investigation of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere. Several report have been presented at 33rd Assembly of COSPAR in Poland (Gavrilov et al., 2000; Belyev and Moiseenko, 2000; Savina and Molodzov, 2000; Bakhmeteva et al., 2000; Benediktov, 2000).

Preliminary results, which demonstrate gravity wave structure in infra-red emission of night sky have been presented (Gavrilyeva and Ammosov, 2001), and from radar observations (Gavrilov et al., 1999). Short period waves with periods in range 1-2 h in the atmosphere have been detected (Petrova and Shved, 1999; Shved et al, 1999). Gravity wave parameterization for PSMOS studies was reported by Gavrilov et al. (1999).

Rocket data have been used to study the dynamical response of the lower ionosphere (D-region). It was shown that lower atmosphere influence on the mesosphere and lower thermosphere via wave propagation mostly by gravity waves (Vanina and Danilov, 2001).

Middle atmosphere spatial structure including its seasonal variations and planetary waves were discussed in several publications (Krivolutsky et al., 1999; Fakhrutdinov et al., 2000; Khoutorova et al., 2000; Fakhrutdinova et al., 2000;Portnyagin et al., 2000; Kazimirovsky and Vergasova, 2000). Longitudinal structure of tidal; components in the lower thermosphere was studied on the basis of radars network (Merzlyakov et al., 1999). An empirical model of global migrating tide winds have been developed on the basis of wind observations by meteor radar in Russia (Portnyagin and Solovyova, 1999).

 

3. Effects of solar activity

 

The interaction of solar activity processes and equatorial QBO phenomena have been studied by different authors with a focus to the presence this oscillation in solar activity indexes and UV solar flux (Gabis and Troshichev, 2003; Troshichev et al., 2000; Soukharev, 1999; Ivanov-Kholodny et al., 2001).

Influence of variations of cosmic rays on atmospheric pressure and temperature in the Southern pole region was found using aerological data at Russian polar network (Egorova et al., 2000). Also Influence of the cosmic rays and solar wind variations on atmospheric temperature in the southern polar region (Troshichev et al., 2002).

Quasi-biennial oscillation effects were found in the polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere (Fadel, et al., 2000). So, it looks that we need to make a focus on a solar activity processes as a possible factor, which determines QBO phenomena.

 

 

References

Bakhmeteva, N. V., V. E. Dudin, and V. M. Pleshkov, Gravity waves and temporal variations of the brighness temperature of the atmosphere in the different climate zones, presented at 33rd Assembly of COSPAR in Poland, 2000.

Belyev A. N. and K. B. Moiseenko, The gravity wave forcing in the middle atmosphere, presented at 33rd Assembly of COSPAR in Poland, 2000.

Gabis I.P., and O.A.Troshichev, Influence of short-term changes in solar activity on baric field perturbations in the stratosphere and troposphere, J. Atmos. Solar_Terr. Phys., 62, 725-735, 2000

Gabis I., and O.Troshichev, Influence of solar UV irradiance on quasi-biennial oscillations in the Earths atmosphere, Adv. Space Res., 2003 (in press).

Gavrilov, N. M., S. Fukao, T. Nakamura, Average seasonal variations of IGW intensity and momentum fluxes in the mesosphere region from the MU radar observations in 1986-1997, Presented at IUGG Assembly in Birmingham, UK, 1999.

Gavrilov, N. G., and M. Taylor, Gravity wave parameterization for PSMOS studies, Presented at IUGG Assembly in Birmingham, UK, 1999.

Gavrilov, N. M., Ch. Jacobi, and D. Kurscher, Climatology of ionospheric drift perturbations at Collm, Germany; Presented at 33rd Assembly of COSPAR in Poland, 2000.

Gavrilyeva G. A., P. P. Ammosov, Observations of gravity waves in infra-red sky emission, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 41, N 3, 375-381, 2001.

Glazkov, V. N., A. I. Ivanovsky, and V. V. Fedorov, Analyses of the statistical structure of long-term variations in the height- and time dependent fields of atmospheric pressure and density from rocket sounding data, Izvestiya RAS, Physica Atmosphery i Oceana, 35, N 1, 39-57, 1999.

Golitsyn, G. S., and G. Givishvili, About the Workshop Cooling and subsidence of the middle and higher atmosphere (Moscow, 6-10 July 1998). Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 39, 139-

144, 1999.

Golitsyn, G. S., A. I. Semenov, and N. N. Shefov, Seasonal variations of long-term temperature trend in the mesosphere region, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 40, 2, 67-70, 2000.

Egorova L.Y., V.Ya.Vovk, and O.A.Troshichev, Influence of variations of cosmic rays on atmospheric pressure and temperature in the Southern pole region, J. Atmos. Solar_Terr. Phys., 62, 955-966, 2000

Fadel, Kh., A. I. Semenov, and N. N. Shefov, Quasi-biennial variations of the temperature at heights of the mesopouse and lower thermosphere. Presented at 23th Annual seminar Physics of auroral phenomena. Preprint PGI 00-01-108. 2000.

Fakhritdinov, R. H., and A. V. Kuznetsov, The spatial effects of the non-linear interaction between daily oscillations and seasonal variations in the middle atmosphere, presented at 33rd Assembly of COSPAR in Poland, 2000.

Fakhrutdinova, A. N., Perevedencev, Y. P. Gurianov, V. V. Kulikov, Dynamical processes correlation in midllatitude lower snd middle atmosphere, presented at 33rd Assembly of COSPAR in Poland, 2000.

Fishkova, L.M. N. M. Martsvaladze, and N.N. Shefov, Patterns of variations in the 557.7 nm. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 40, 782-786, 2000.

Fishkova, L.M., N. M. Martsvaladze, and N.N. Shefov, Long-term variations of the nighttime upper atmosphere sodium emission. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy , 41, 528-532, 2001a.

Fishkova, L.M., N. M. Martsvaladze, and N.N. Shefov, Seasonal variations in the correlation of atomic oxygen 577.7 nm emission with solar activity and in long-term trend. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 41, 533-539, 2001b.

Kazimirovsky, E. D., and G. Vergasova, Non-zonal effect in the dynamical structure of the midlaltitude MLT region, presented at 33rd Assembly of COSPAR in Poland, 2000.

Khoutopova, O. G., R. H. Fakhrutdinov, and G. M. Teptin, Seasonal structure of the middle atmospheric waves controlled by air pollutions variability, presented at 33rd Assembly of COSPAR in Poland, 2000.

Krivolutsky, A. A., Air pressure deficit over South pole during Antarctic spring, its long-term variability and possible influence on the photochemistry of ozone, Proceedings of the International Symposium Long-term changes and trends in the atmosphere, Ed. by G. Beig, Pune, India, Volume I, 341-350, 1999.

Krivolutsky, A. A., A. Ebel, A. Klyuchnikova, and M. Banin, Middle atmosphere response to stationary tropospheric waves at high latitudes of the southern hemisphere: 3D model study, Presented at the First S-RAMP Conference, Sapporo, Japan, 1999.

Krivolutsky, A. A. T. Yu. Vyushkova, and V. N. Glazkov, Long-term changes in chemical composition of the middle atmosphere caused by the existence of trends in temperature and pressure: photochemical simulations, Advances in Space Research (in press).

Lysenko, E. V., S. P. Perov, A. I. Semenov, N. N. Shefov, V. A. Suhodeev, G. V. Givishvili, and L. N. Leshenko, Long-term trends of yearly averaged temperature at the heights 25-110 km Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 35, 435-443, 1999.

Makarova, L. N., and A. V. Shirochkov, Long-term variability of stratospheric temperature above central Antarctica, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 27, 449-453, 2002.

Merzlyakov, E., Yu. Portnyagin, Ch. Jacobi, N. Mitchel, H. Muller, A. Manson,A. Fakhrutdinova, W. Singer, and P. Hoffman, On the longitudinal structure of gravity waves, tides, and PWs in the mesosphere: observations using mainly the MLT-MF radars in the north-american/pacific sector, Presented at IUGG Assembly in Birmingham, UK, 1999.

Petrova, L. N., and G. M. Shved, The first detection of free oscillations of the atmosphere in the 1-2 h period range, Presented at IUGG Assembly in Birmingham, UK, 1999.

Portnyagin, Yu., and T. Solovyova, Empirical global migrating diurnal tide wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere, Presented at IUGG Assembly in Birmingham, UK, 1999.

Ramaswamy, V., M. L. Chanin, J. Angell, J. Barnett, D. Gafeen, M. Gelman, P. Keckhut, Yu. Koshelkov, K. Labitzke, J. J. R. Lin, A. ONeil, J. Nash, W. Randel, R. Rood, M. Shiotani, R. Swinbank, and K. Shine, Stratospheric temperature trends: observations and model simulations, Review of Geophysics, 39, N 2, 71-122, 2001.

Savina, O. N., and A. A. Molodzov, The lowest mode of acoustic gravity waves and its instability in the nonisothermal atmosphere, presented at 33rd Assembly of COSPAR in Poland, 2000.

Shefov, N. N., A. I. Semenov, N. N. Pertsev, and V. A. Sukhodoev, The spatial distribution of gravity wave energy influx into mesopouse over a mountain Lee, Phys. Chem. Earth, 25, N 5-6, 541-545, 2000.

Shefov, N. N., A. I. Semenov, and O. T. Yurchenko, Empirical model of atomic Na emission variations during night 1 Intensity, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 40, N 1, 123-128, 2000.

Shefov, N. N., A. I. Semenov, and O., Empirical model of atomic Na emission variations during night 2. Height of emission layer, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 41, N 2, 267-271, 2001.

Shefov, N. N., A. I. Semenov, and N. N. Pertsev, Dependence of the amplitude of the temperature enhancement maximum and atomic oxygen concentrations in the mesopause region on season and solar activity level, Phys. Chem. Earth (B), 25, N 5-6, 537-539, 2000.

Shefov, N. N., and A. I. Semenov, The long-term trend of ozone at heights from 80 to 100 km at mid-latitude mesopause for nocturnal conditions, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 27, 535-542, 2002.

Shved, G. M. , L. N. Petrova, and O. S. Polyakova, Penetrating the Earths free oscillations with the 54 min period into the atmosphere, Presented at IUGG Assembly in Birmingham, UK, 1999.

Semenov, A. I., N. N. Shefov, G. V. Givishvili, L. N. Leshenko, E. V. Lysenko, V. Ya, Rusina, L. M. Fishkova, N. M. Marcvladze, T. I. Toroshelidze, B. L. Kasheev, and A. N. Oleynikov, Seasonal features of long-term temperature trends of the middle atmosphere, Doklady of Russian Academy of Science, 374, 6, 816-819, 2000.

Semenov, A. I., N. N. Shefov, E. V. Lysenko, G. V. Givishvili, and A. V. Tikhonov, The season peculiarities of behavior of the long-term temperature trends in the middle atmosphere on the mid-latitudes, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 27, 529-534, 2002.

Starkov, G. V., L. S. Yevlashin, A. I. Semenov, and N. N. Shefov, Subsidence of the Thermosphere During the 20th Century According to Measurements of Auroral Heights, 25, 5-6 547-550 2000.

Troshichev O.A., I.P.Gabis, L.V.Egorova, V.Ya.Vovk, and A.V.Frank-Kamenetsky, Influence of the short-term variations of the solar activity on the atmosphere circulation and temperature regimes, Problems of Arctic and Antarctic, 72, 249-285, 2000

Troshichev O.A., L.V.Egorova, V.Ya.Vovk, Influence of the cosmic rays and solar wind Influence of the cosmic rays and solar wind variations on atmospheric temperature in the southern polar region variations on atmospheric temperature in the southern polar region, in Sixth Internal Conference on Substorms, ed. R.M.Winglee, Seattle, 135-142, 2002.

Vanina, L.B., and A.D. Danilov, Middle-latitude D-region and dynamical processes, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 41, N 3, 375-381, 2001.

 

 

 

 

 

 

PHYSICS OF CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATIONS

 

 

A. A. Chernikov

 

Central Aerological Observatory,

Pervomayskaya Str. 3, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, Russia (albert@orm.mipt.ru)

 

 

 

1.      Cloud Physics

1.1  Condensation nuclei, ice nuclei, and atmospheric aerosol

 

A monograph on the physics of atmospheric aerosols has been published [1]. At the experimental base of the Main Geophysical Observatory, atmospheric aerosol concentrations within the particle size range of 0.3-1 mm have been measured at the fall out of liquid and solid-state precipitation. The intensity of both dry and wet deposition has been evaluated using a numerical model of a convective cloud [4]. The evolution of a volcano plum has been investigated through numerical modeling [5,6]. The feasibility has been studied of the radar detection of clouds that form following accidents at nuclear power plants [3] and of radar estimation of the resulting radionuclid contamination of the environment [9]. A unit to detect and monitor accident emission [10] has been offered.

The results have been summarized of the systematic measurements of total atmospheric aerosol and ice nuclei concentration conducted at Dolgoprudny (20 km north of Moscow) in 1987-2000. The measured mean semiannual concentrations of submicron particles (0,0075 1 mm), large nuclei (0,3 10 mm), and ice nuclei have revealed no marked trends during that period [11]. Atmospheric aerosol concentrations were measured in Moscow Region during the summer 2002 smoking event. Scavenging coefficients for different particle sizes have been estimated [12].

Informative potentials have been assessed of up-to-date instrumentation complexes on board weather satellites designed to study the gaseous and aerosol composition of the atmosphere [13].

 

1.    Ivlev, L.S., Dovgaluk, Yu..A. Physics of atmospheric aerosol systems. St. Petersburg, Izdanie NIICh St. Petersburg , 2000. 256 p. (in Russian).

2.    Veremei, N.E. On the impact of suspended coarsely dispersed aerosol particles on a convective flow in the troposphere. // Vestnik St. Petersburg GU, ser. 4 (Physics and Chemistry). 1998. Vyp..2, No. 11, p. 18 24 (in Russian).

3.    Veremei, N.E., Dovgaluk, Yu..A., Savchenko, I.A., Sinkevich, A.A., Stepanenko, V.D. Investigating the feasibility of the radar detection of clouds formed in the atmosphere during accidents at nuclear power stations. Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 1999, V.35, No. 4, p. 523 530 (in Russian).

4.    Veremei, N.E., Dovgaluk, Yu..A., Egorov, A.D., Ishchenko, M.A., Ponomarev, Yu.F., Sinkevich, A.A., Stalevich, D.D., Stepanenko, V.D., Khvorostovsky, K.S. Investigation of the wet deposition of aerosol particles by clouds and precipitation. Meteorol. Hydrol., 1999, No. 8, p.5 14 (in Russian).

5.    Ivlev, L.S., Dovgaluk, Yu..A., Veremei, N.E. The impact of solid coarsely dispersed aerosol particles on the evolution of a volcanic plume. Optica Atmosphery i Okeana , 2000, V.13, No. 6 7, p. 588 591 (in Russian).

6.    Ivlev, L.S., Dovgaluk, Yu..A., Veremei, N.E. Numerical modeling of a volcanic plume in the absence of condensation. Optica Atmosphery i Okeana, 2000, V.13, No. 6 7, p.592 597 (in Russian).

7.    Drozdetsky, S.E., Kubrin, V.I., Stepanenko, V.D., Dovgaluk, Yu.A., Sinkevich, A.A., Saakian, A.G., Galperin, S.M., Voronkov, V.D., Ishchenko, M.A., Veremei, N.E. A system of the active protection of population from radioactive emission of nuclear works (as applied to the nuclear power station in Sosnovyi Bor). Pilot Project. St. Petersburg, 1998. 117 p. (in Russian).

8.                  Stepanenko, V.D., Dovgaluk, Yu.A., Drozdetsky, S.E., Sinkevich, A.A., Galperin, S.M., Kubrin, V.I., Sinkevich, A.A., Vaksenburg, S.I., Savchenko, I.A., Veremei, N.E., Emelianova, V.N. Radar-lidar detection and tracking of radioactive emission and clouds formed due to accidents at nuclear power stations. Transactions of the International Ecological Symposium Promising information technologies and problems of risk management on the eve of the new millenium, , , 2000. V.2, p. 338 344 (in Russian).

9.    Dovgaluk, Yu..A., Sinkevich, A.A., Stepanenko, V.D., Kubrin, V.I., Ishchenko, M.A., Veremei, N.E. Numerical estimates of environment contamination by radionuclids washed out from the atmosphere by natural and artificially induced precipitation (rain, snow), based on radar data. Transactions of the International Ecological Symposium Promising information technologies and problems of risk management on the eve of the new millenium, St. Petersburg, MANEB, 2000. V.2, p. 405 410 (in Russian).

10.              Patent for invention No.14096, 1999. Identifier of radioactive emissions to the atmosphere (authored by Stepanenko, V.D., Galperin, S.M., Sinkevich, A.A., Kubrin, V.I. et al) (in Russian).

11.              Plaude N.O., Vychuzhanina M.V. Aerosol particle size distribution, total number and IN concentration in Moscow Region. Proc. 15th ICNAA, USA, August 2000.

12.              Plaude, N.O., Vychuzhanina, M.V. Monalhova, N.A., Grishina, N.P. The microstructure of aerosol in Moscow region in the abnormal September 2002. IX Working Group. Aerosols of Siberia. Abstracts. Tomsk, 2002, p. 40 41 (in Russian).

13.              Chernikov, A.a., Borisov, Yu.A., Ivanovsky, A.I., Glazkov, V.N., Bankova, T.V., Chayanova, E.A. Data acquisition potentials of the US-Russia research complex for space-borne observations of gaseous and aerosol constituents of the Earths atmosphere Meteor 3M/SAGE-III. Proceedings of the International Symposium of CIS States on Atmospheric Radiation (-02). St. Petersburg , 18-21 June 2002, p. 6-7 (in Russian).

 

 

 

1.2  Cloud physics studies

 

Data on convective cloud features in the northwestern region of Russia are summarized [14]. In [15], a review is presented of the investigations in cloud physics and artificial cloud modification conducted at the Main Geophysical Observatory since its foundation.

The effect of the ionization of medium on phase and microstructural water transformations and on electrization processes leading to the formation of thunderstorm clouds has been investigated in the laboratory [16,15,17]. Ground measurements of freezing precipitation for a decade are summarized and the corresponding charts for the territory of Russia are constructed [18].

The Russian high-altitude airplane M-55 Geophysika was employed in pioneering collaborative European-Russian studies of the Antarctic and tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where the dramatic changes observed (ozone hole, chemical and dynamic processes) affect the Earths climate. In the framework of the European projects such as APE-GAIA, APE-THESEO, and APE-INERA, in which Russian scientists take part, the high-altitude airplane has been equipped with high-precision instruments to measure atmospheric composition; the data of the unique aircraft expeditions have been analyzed [19].

A hygrometer has been created that can operate at very low temperatures [20]. The hygrometer installed on board M-55 Geophysika has furnished data relevant to the nature of cloud formation in the zone of the equatorial tropical tropopause. In particular, zones with supersaturation over ice were found at the upper boundary of clouds (sub-visible cirrus) [21]. It is shown that at stratospheric levels, within the ozone hole, chemical ozone destruction exceeded 85 %. The clouds detected in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause are an important element in the balance of water vapor penetrating to the stratosphere and affecting the radiation characteristics and chemical composition of the atmosphere [22].

A technique has been developed to estimate the skill score of the Earth surface observation from space under cloudy conditions, using climatic data on mean cloud amount. The technique makes it unnecessary to use archives of daily satellite-borne data on total cloud amount [23].

 

14.  Sinkevich, A.A. Convestive clouds in the northwest of Russia. St. Petersburg, Gidrometeoizdat, 2001. 108 p. (in Russian).

15.  Dovgaluk Yu.A., Sinkevich, A.A., Stepanenko, V.D. Investigations in cloud physics and artificial weather modification. Collected Articles to Commemorate the 150th Anniversary. 1999, V.1, p. 146 162 (in Russian).

16.  Dovgaluk, Yu.A., Ponomarev, Yu.F., Pershina, T.A., Sinkevich, A.A., Stepanenko, V.D. Studying electrical impacts on fog microstructure (laboratory experiments). Recent investigations of the Main Geophysical Observatory. Collected Articles to Commemorate the 150th Anniversary. 1999, V.1, p. 270 284 (in Russian).

17.  Stepanenko, V.D., Dovgaluk, Yu.A., Sinkevich, A.A., Veremei, N.E., Ponomarev, Yu.F., Pershina, T.A. Studying the effect of electric charges on phase and microstructural water transformations in clouds. Meteorologia I Gidrologia, 2002, No. 3, p. 39 50 (in Russian).

18.  Bezrukova N.., Minina L.S., Naumov .Ya Freezing Precipitation Climatology in the Former European USSR. 13th International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation. Reno, Nevada USA, 14-18 August 2000.

19.  Ulanovsky, A.E., Yushkov, V.A., Sitnikov, N.M., Raveniani, F. Fast Aircraft Chemiluminescence Ozonometer FOZAN-II. Izv. RAN, Pribory i Technika Experimenta, 2001, No.2, p.127-135 (in Russian).

20.  Mezrin M.Yu., Starokoltsev E.V. Aircraft Condensation Hygrometer. 13th International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation. Reno, Nevada USA, 14-18 August 2000.

21.  Mezrin M.Yu., Starokoltsev E.V. Aircraft Condensation Hygrometer and some results of measuring humidity in the zone of the equatorial tropopause. J. Atmos. Res., V. 59-60, 2001, p. 331-341.

22.  Yushkov, V.A., Sitnikov, N.M., Ulanovsky, A.E., Raveniani, F., Redaelli, G. Measurements of ozone and water vapor in the Antarctic polar stratospheric cyclone from board the high-altitude aircraft M-55 Geophysika. Izvestiya, Atmos. Okean. Phys., 2001, V.37, No.3, p. 297-302.

23.  Vorobiev, B.I., Rozanova, I.V., Rozanov, R.E. A priori estimation of the potential skill score of the Earths surface observation from space using climatic data on the total cloud amount. Issledovaniye Zemli iz Kosmosa, No. 1, 2002 (in Russian).

 

 

 

1.3  In situ and remote techniques for sounding clouds and fogs

 

Investigations of the structure of mesoscale convective systems over the Sea of Japan were conducted using the instrumentation mounted on board IL-18 aircraft. The range of scales in studying the vertical moisture transport has been considerably extended. The weight of different scales from 10 m to 50 km in the integral moisture transport and the spatial variability of the latter have been investigated. The fraction of turbulence has been determined that accounts for 1/3 to 1/6 of the integral moisture transport [24, 25]. Turbulent heat and moisture fluxes in the convective atmospheric boundary layer leading to the formation on its upper bound of a cloud layer have been studied (11-20). Paper [26] is devoted to the investigation of heat, moisture and impulse fluxes in the convective boundary layer from board specially equipped flight vehicles (the aircraft DO-128, FALCON 20-E5, and helicopter-towed measurement complex "Helipod") in the environs of the Lindenberg Observatory (Germany).

Papers [27, 28] describe the instruments and techniques to study the atmosphere (including clouds) from board the Russian aircraft weather lab IL-18; they also present a description of the experiment to study the convective atmospheric boundary layer in Yakutsk area during April-June 2000. Papers and reports [29-35] discuss the results of the aircraft studies of the convective atmospheric boundary layer in Yakutsk area in April-June 2000.

Radar and radar-radiometric methods of cloud and fog investigation have been further developed in order to improve the accuracy of radar measurements of precipitation, a method of Z-R ratio on-line specification has been worked out on the basis of two-wave measurements of radar signal attenuation in clouds [36]. An automated meteorological system to control fog parameters during fog-clearing operations has been created [37]. Radar-radiometer studies of winter precipitation-generating cloud systems were carried out using the microwave radiometer developed at CAO [38, 39, 40].

Summarized are experimental data on turbulent and convective motions in the lower troposphere which favor the formation in it of convective clouds [41].

Previously unavailable experimental data are first presented on temperature, wind, and, in particular detail, humidity in the vicinity of the equatorial tropopause over the Indian Ocean. Cases of the formation inside the tropopause and above the troposphere of clouds that form due to the presence in this area of local saturation zones in the ridges of internal gravitation waves near the tropopause [42,43].

24.  Mezrin M.Yu., Starokoltsev E.V., Fujiyoshi Y. Investigations of the Structure of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the Sea of Japan. Conference of the European Geophysical Society, Nice, France, 21-26 April, 2002.

25.  Mezrin M.Yu., Starokoltsev E.V., Fujiyoshi Y. The contribution of different scales to integral moisture transport (Based on Investigations over the Sea of Japan, 2001). J. Atmos. Res. 2003 (in print).

26.  Strunin, M. A., Beyrich, F. and Baumann, R.: 2000, Aircraft Investigations of the Turbulence Structure and Turbulent Fluxes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Lindenberg Area, Deutscher Wetterdienst Forschung und Entwicklung, Arbeitsergebnisse, 63, Offenbach am Main, 28 pp.

27.  Hiyama T., M. Strunin: 2001, 'Aircraft observations over Yakutsk region in Intensive Observation period (IOP) 2000', GAME Publication 26, Activity Report of GAME-Siberia 2000, Japan, National Committee for GAME, 45 - 50.

28.  Strunin M., M. Mezrin: 2001, 'Russian instruments used aboard Ilyushin-18 aircraft during Intensive Observation period (IOP) 2000 in Yakutsk Region', GAME Publication 26, Activity Report of GAME-Siberia 2000, Japan, National Committee for GAME, 51 - 56.

29.  Strunin M.A., T. Hiyama, J. Asanuma: 2001, 'Aircraft observations and scaling of the thermal internal boundary layer in the convective boundary layer over non-homogeneous land surface. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on GEWEX, 9 -14 September, 2001, Paris, France, 148.

30.  Hiyama T., M. A. Strunin, J. Asanuma, M. Y. Mezrin, R. Suzuki and T. Ohata: 2001, 'Spatial and seasonal variations of heat and carbon dioxide fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer over non-homogeneous surface in Eastern Siberia derived from aircraft observations', Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on GEWEX, 9 -14 September, 2001, Paris, France, 76.

31.  Strunin M.A., T. Hiyama and J. Asanuma: 2001, Development of thermal internal boundary layer and scaling of convective boundary layer over non-homogeneous land surface based on aircraft observations, Proceedings of the Fifth International Study Conference on GEWEX in Asia and GAME, 3 5 October, 2001, Nagoya, Japan, 3, 709 714.

32.  Hiyama, T., M.A. Strunin, J. Asanuma, M. Mezrin, R. Suzuki, and T. Ohata: 2001, Flux distributions of heat and carbon dioxide in the atmospheric boundary layer over non-homogeneous surface in Eastern Siberia, Proceedings of the Fifth International Study Conference on GEWEX in Asia and GAME, 3 5 October, 2001, Nagoya, Japan, 2, 307 314.

33.  Asanuma, J., T. Hiyama, M.A. Strunin, M.Y. Mezrin, R. Suzuki, and T. Ohata: 2001, 'Spatial scales relevant to the heat and scalar transports over Siberian Taiga forest revealed with aircraft observations', Proceedings of the Fifth International Study Conference on GEWEX in Asia and GAME, 3 5 October, 2001, Nagoya, Japan, 2, 449.

34.  Hiyama T., M.A. Strunin, J. Asanuma, M.Y. Mezrin, R. Suzuki, N.A. Bezrukova and T. Ohata: 2002, 'Aircraft observation of the atmospheric boundary layer over non-homogeneous surface in Eastern Siberia', Hydrological Processes (in print).

35.  Strunin M.A., T. Hiyama, J. Asanuma and T. Ohata: 2002, 'Aircraft observations of the development of thermal internal boundary layers and scaling of the convective boundary layer over non-homogeneous land surfaces', Bound. Layer Meterol., (in print).

36.  Melnichuk Yu.V., Pavlyukov Yu.B. Operational adjustment of Z-R relation coefficients for radar rainfall accuracy improvement by Dual-wave attenuation measurements. Proc. 30th International Conf. On radar Meteorology, Munich, Germany, 18-24 July 2001, American Meteorol. Soc., Boston, USA, pp. 592-593.

37.  Khaikine M.N., Koldaev A.V., Miller E.A., Mironov A.V. Automatic meteosystem for fog parameters monitoring. Proc. of WMO Technical Conf. On Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation (TECO-2002). Bratislava, WMO, IOM 75, d. 1.1(4), 4 p.

38.  Koldaev A.V., Troitsky A.V., Kadygrov V.E., Miller E.A., Pavlyukov Yu.B. Some results of radar-radiometer study of winter clouds within AIRS project. Abstracts of special meeting on Microwave Remote Sensing, 5-9 November 2001, Boulder, USA, p. 61-62.

39.  Koldaev A.V., Troitsky A.V., Strapp W., Melnichuk Yu.V., Pavlyukov Yu.B. Case study of the characteristics of a snow storm associated with an aircraft accident at Detroit (9 January 1997). Absracts of special meeting on Microwave Remote Sensing, 5-9 November 2001, Boulder, USA, p. 85.

40.  Koldaev, A.V., Kadygrov, V.E., Miller, E.A. Some results of the radar-radiometer studies of winter cloud parameters in the framework of AIRS project. Trudy Vserossiyskoy Conferentsii po Rasprostrananiyu Radiovoln. Nizhny Novgorod, 2-4 July 2002, p. 344-345 (in Russian).

41.  Shmeter, S.M., Strunin, M.A. Peculiarities of the structure and energy of turbulence in the lower troposphere. Meteorologia I Gidrologia, No.10, 1998 (in Russian).

42.  Mezrin, M.Yu., Shmeter, S.M. New experimental data on the spatial meso-variability of air humidity near the equatorial tropical tropopause. Meteorologia I Gidrologia, No.4, 2003 (in print) (in Russian).

43.  Shmeter, S.M., Postnov, A.A., Shur, G.N. New data on mesoscale and turbulent oscillations of temperature and wind in the zone of tropical tropopause. Meteorologia I Gidrologia, No. 3, 2003 (in print) (in Russian).

 

 

 

 

2.      Artificial weather modification

 

2.1  Agents and Technical Aids

 

The historical role of pyrotechnics in the development of the Russian cloud modification means is evaluated [44]. Based on the extensive laboratory studies of the efficiency of currently employed and newly developed ice-forming agents, a new 8% silver iodide pyrotechnic substance with increased efficiency and weather modification aids using it (a cartridge and an anti-hail rocket) have been created [45, 46]. New data have been obtained on the dependence of cloud dissipation on the concentration of the ice-forming aerosol vented into the cloud and on differences in the behavior of coolants and ice-forming aerosol [47]. Research is under way to develop hygroscopic agents to act upon clouds in order to enhance precipitation. Based on a one-dimensional numerical model of a convective cloud, optimal characteristics of hygroscopic agent particles to produce a precipitation enhancement effect have been estimated [48]. A manual on the technique of laboratory checking of pyrotechnic agent efficiency has been compiled [49].

 

44.    Chernikov, A.A., Plaude, N.O. The role of pyrotechnics in the development of domestic artificial modification of clouds and new objectives. Trudy II Vserossiyskoy Conferentsii Sovremennye Problemy Pirotechniki, Sergiyev Posad, 21-22 November 2002 (in print) (in Russian).

45.    Kim, N.S., Korneyev, V.P., Nesmeyanov, P.A., Plaude, N.O., Shkodkin, .V. Current tendencies in the development of pyrotechnics for artificial weather modification. Trudy Nauchnoy Conferentsii po Rezultatam Issledovaniy v Oblasti Gidrometeorologii I Monitoringa Zagriazneniya Prirodnoy Sredy v Gosudarstvakh Uchastnikach SNG, posviashchonnoy 10-letiyu Obrazovaniya Mezhgosudarstvennogo Soveta po Gidrometeorologii, St. Petersburg, 23-26 April 2002, Sektsiya 4,

p. 57-59 (in Russian).

46.    Chernikov, A.A., Plaude, N.O., Kim, N.S., Korneyev, V.P., Nesmeyanov, P.A., Dubinin, V.N., Sidorov, A.I. New Russian pyrotechnics to seed supercooled clouds. Reports at the II Vserossiyskoy Conferentsii Sovremennye Problemy Pirotechniki, Sergiyev Posad, 21-22 November 2002 (in print) (in Russian).

47.    Bazzaev T.V., Plaude N.O. On the difference in the behavior of cooling agents and ice-forming aerosols in clouds. Proc. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. on Weather. Modification, Thailand, 1999, WMO Report No.31, Vol.2, pp. 303 304.

48.    Vladimirov, S.A. Numerical experiments in modeling the formation of cloud drops spectrum during hygroscopic seeding of a sub-cloud layer. Physika Oblakov i Aktivnyie Vozdeystviya. Sbornik Statey Pamyati N.S. Shishkina, Gidrometeoizdat (in print) (in Russian).

49.    Plaude, N.O., Sosnikova, E.V., Grishina, N.P. RD 52.11.639-2002. Methodical Guide. The technique of estimating the efficiency of ice-forming agents and pyrotechnics in laboratory conditions. Gidrometeoizdat, St. Petersburg, 2002, 26 p. (in Russian).

 

 

 

2.2  Artificial precipitation enhancement

The activity of Russia in the field of artificial modification of hydrometeorological processes is described [50]. An analytical review is presented of the problem of precipitation regime changes on the territory from the lee side of the area of precipitation enhancement operations First analyzed and summarized are experimental data on the effects causing cloud modification in zones adjacent to the lee side of the area where clouds of different classes are acted upon [51].

A readily removable aircraft complex of technical aids for cloud seeding by various types of ice-forming agents and coolants (silver iodide aerosol, granulated solid carbonic acid, liquefied nitrogen) [52, 53] and a readily removable air-borne measurement-computation complex to conduct weather modification operations have been developed [54].

 

50.    Chernikov, A.A. Activities in artificial modification of hydrometeorological processes in Russia. Trudy Nauchnoy Conferentsii po Rezultatam Issledovaniy v Oblasti Gidrometeorologii I Monitoringa Zagriazneniya Prirodnoy Sredy v Gosudarstvakh Uchastnikach SNG, posviashchonnoy 10-letiyu Obrazovaniya Mezhgosudarstvennogo Soveta po Gidrometeorologii, St. Petersburg, 23-26 April 2002, Plenarnaya chast, p. 27-31 (in Russian).

51.              Shmeter, S.M., Korneyev, V.P. Changes in precipitation regime on the lee side of the zone of artificial cloud modification. Meteorologia i Gidrologia, No. 12, 2000, p. 35-46 (in Russian).

52. Beriulev, G.P., Korneyev, V.P., Petrov, V.V., Fedorov, O.K. State-of-the-Art and prospects of the development of aircraft technical weather modification means. Abstracts. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya po Physike Oblakov I Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy, Nalchik, 23-25 October 2001, p.1-3 (in Russian).

53 Beriulev, G.P., Korneyev, V.P., Petrov, V.V., Fedorov, O.K. An aircraft technical weather modification complex for operational activities. Trudy Nauchnoy Conferentsii po Rezultatam Issledovaniy v Oblasti Gidrometeorologii I Monitoringa Zagriazneniya Prirodnoy Sredy v Gosudarstvakh Uchastnikach SNG, posviashchonnoy 10-letiyu Obrazovaniya Mezhgosudarstvennogo Soveta po Gidrometeorologii, St. Petersburg, 23-26 April 2002, Sectsiya 4,

p. 19-21 (in Russian).

54. Beriulev, G.P., Korneyev, V.P., Petrov, Skuratov, S.N., Volkov, V.V. A new-generation aircraft measurement and computation complex for artificial weather modification and studies of the atmosphere and clouds. Trudy Nauchnoy Conferentsii po Rezultatam Issledovaniy v Oblasti Gidrometeorologii I Monitoringa Zagriazneniya Prirodnoy Sredy v Gosudarstvakh Uchastnikach SNG, posviashchonnoy 10-letiyu Obrazovaniya Mezhgosudarstvennogo Soveta po Gidrometeorologii, St. Petersburg, 23-26 April 2002, Sektsiya 4, p. 23-24 (in Russian).

 

 

2.3  Artificial modification of hail processes for hail protection

 

The ecological safety of the Russian hail-protection technology has been estimated and ecological conditioning by the Russian Federation Hail-Protection Paramilitary Services has been performed [55,56]. It is established that the maximum concentration of detrimental rocket hail- protection wastes in the atmosphere, soil, and open water reservoirs is 104-107 time less than the maximum permissible concentration.

A statistical estimate has been obtained of the economic efficiency of the Russian hail-protection technology employed in the Russian Federation, CIS states, Argentina, and Brazil, which shows that nearly everywhere the technology provides a statistically significant 76-90% reduction of loss from hail [57, 58].

An automated technology of artificial hail processes modification has been developed on the basis of the soft-hardware complex ASU Antigrad [59-61], which enables increasing the efficiency of hail protection to 85-90%. The improved efficiency together with the reduced hail-protection costs were made possible by upgrading the methods of identifying the categories of hail-hazardous clouds based on the measurement and calculation of a set of radar cloud characteristics [62-64].

Developed, tested and introduced to practice are some new crystallizing agents in the form of propellants, the anti-hail rockets Alazan-CM15, Alazan-5 and Alazan-6, an new-generation small-size automated rocket complex Alan, and universal automated facility Darg-PU to launch different types of rockets using replaceable unified packs of launching guides [65].

Summarized are the data on thunderstorm features in the Caucasus [66]. Thunderstorm development in a convective cloud is analyzed [67].

 

55.              Abshaev M.T. Estimation of Ecological Purity of Russian Hail Suppression Technology. Proc. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. on Weather. Modification, Thailand, 1999, WMO Report No.31, Vol.2, pp. 553 557.

56.              Abshaev M.T. Estimation of Ecological Purity of the Russian Rocket-Borne Hail Suppression Technology. Trudy Mezhdunarodnoy Conferentsii po Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy. Cheboksary, 2000, p. 32-40 (in Russian).

57.              Abshaev M.T. Efficiency of Russian Hail Suppression Technology in Different Regions of the World. Proc. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. on Weather. Modification, Thailand, 1999, WMO Report No.31, Vol.2, pp. 411 415.

58.              Abshaev M.T., Malkarova A.M. Results of Hail Suppression Project in Argentina. Proc. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. on Weather. Modification, Thailand, 1999, WMO Report No.31, Vol.2, pp. 391 395.

59.              Makitov V. , Stasenko V.N. An Automated Rocket Hail Suppression System. Proc. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. On Weather Modification, Thailand, 1999, WMO Report No. 31, Vol.2, pp.403-407

60.              Abshaev M.T. An automated rocket-borne hail-protection technology and results of its application in different regions of the world. Trudy Mezhdunarodnoy Conferentsii po Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy. Cheboksary, 2000, p. 23-32 (in Russian).

61.              Abshaev, M.T. New-generation automated rocket-borne hail-protection complexes. Trudy Nauchnoy Conferentsii po Rezultatam Issledovaniy v Oblasti Gidrometeorologii I Monitoringa Zagriazneniya Prirodnoy Sredy v Gosudarstvakh Uchastnikach SNG, posviashchonnoy 10-letiyu Obrazovaniya Mezhgosudarstvennogo Soveta po Gidrometeorologii, St. Petersburg, 23-26 April 2002, Sektsiya 4, p. 6-11 (in Russian).

62.              Abshaev M.T. Evolution of Seeded and Unseeded Hailstorms. Proc. 7th WMO Sci. Conf. on Weather Modification, Thailand, 1999, WMO Report No. 31, Vol.2, pp. 407-411.

63.              Abshev, M.T., Senov, Kh.M. On an algorithm to determine the parameters of hail cloud microstructure. Trudy PGGMU, vyp.76, 2001, p. 67-79 (in Russian).

64.              Abshaev, M.T., Malkarova, A.M., Tebuev, A.D. Radar control of the efficiency of artificial modification of hail processes. Trudy Nauchnoy Conferentsii po Rezultatam Issledovaniy v Oblasti Gidrometeorologii I Monitoringa Zagriazneniya Prirodnoy Sredy v Gosudarstvakh Uchastnikach SNG, posviashchonnoy 10-letiyu Obrazovaniya Mezhgosudarstvennogo Soveta po Gidrometeorologii, St. Petersburg, 23-26 April 2002, Sektsiya 4, p. 12-14 (in Russian).

65.              Abshaev, M.T., Varenykh, N.M. et al. Technical means using pyrotechnic aerosol generators for artificial cloud modification. The II Vserossiyskoy Conferentsii Sovremennye Problemy Pirotechniki, Sergiyev Posad, 21-22 November 2002, p. 63-76 (in Russian).

66.              Adjiev, A.Kh. Climatological and physico-statistical characteristics of thunderstorms in the Caucasus. Trudy VGI, Issue 90, 1999, p.64-70 (in Russian).

67.              Adjiev, A.Kh., Kapov, P.Kh., Sizhazhev, S.M. Thunderstorm development in convective clouds. Trudy VGI, Issue 91, 2001, p.90-99 (in Russian).

 

 

 

2.4  Artificial dissipation of fogs

 

The supercooled fog dissipation technique using liquid nitrogen continues to be upgraded. As a results of laboratory and field studies, ground nitrogen generators of ice particles have been created enabling effective fog dissipation at temperatures close to zero [68]. Nitrogen generators are employed in experimental fog-clearing operations at motorways and airports. An up-to-date three-dimensional numerical model of fog has been constructed which is used to control these operations [69]. A guide regulating the organization and performance of such activities has been published [70,71].

Work to create methods and technical means for artificial warm fog dissipation was being done. Developed and tested was an electrostatic technique of fog droplet precipitation to be used at motorways and airports [72,73] and a technique of warm fog dissipation at airports using thermal systems was investigated [74].

 

68.               Vlasiuk, M.P., Bankova, N.Yu., Koloskov, B.P., Krasnovskaya, L.I., Sergeyev, B.N., Chernikov, A.A. State-of-the-art and prospects of the development of artificial fog dissipation techniques. Trudy Nauchnoy Conferentsii po Rezultatam Issledovaniy v Oblasti Gidrometeorologii I Monitoringa Zagriazneniya Prirodnoy Sredy v Gosudarstvakh Uchastnikach SNG, posviashchonnoy 10-letiyu Obrazovaniya Mezhgosudarstvennogo Soveta po Gidrometeorologii, St. Petersburg, 23-26 April 2002, Sektsiya 4, p. 35-38 (in Russian).

69.               Bankova, N.Yu., Koloskov, B.P., Krasnovskaya, L.I., Sergeyev, B.N., Chernikov, A.A. Development of an automated system of nitrogen generators to dissipate supercooled fogs at motorways. Abstracts. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya po Physike Oblakov I Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy. Nalchik, 23-25 October 2001, p. 48-51 (in Russian).

70.               Krasnovskaya, L.I., Khizhnyak, A.N., Sergeyev, B.N., Bankova, N.Yu. RD 52.11.638-2002 Methodical Guide. Carrying out artificial supercooled fog dissipation activities at airports by means of ground technical aids using liquid nitrogen. Gidrometeoizdat, St. Petersburg, 2003, (in print) (in Russian).

71.               Vlasiuk. M.P., Beriulev, G.P., Chernysh, B.I., Mukiy, N.G., Kochetov, N.M., Korotkova, L.A. RD 52.11.640-2002 Methodical Guide. Using the technique of artificial supercooled fog dissipation at motorways. Gidrometeoizdat, St. Petersburg, 2002, 26 p. (in Russian).

72.               Chernikov A.A., Khaikine M.N. Warm fog dispersal at the highway Venice-Trieste using electric precipitator. Proc. of the Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection, St.John[s, Newfoundland, Canada, 2001, pp. 481-484.

73.               Chernikov A.A., Khaikine M.N. Artificial fog dissipation at motorways by electrostatic techniques. Meteorologia I Gidrologia, 2002, No.3, p.51-60 (in Russian).

74.               Bankova, N.Yu., Koloskov, B.P., Krasnovskaya, L.I., Sergeyev, B.N., Chernikov, A.A. Khaikine M.N. Development of a warm fog dissipation method using thermokinetic generators. Abstracts. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya po Physike Oblakov I Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy. Nalchik, 23-25 October 2001, p. 51-53 (in Russian).

 

 

 

2.5  Improving weather in megapolises

 

Based on the aircraft techniques developed at the Central Aerological Observatory for cloud dissipation and temporary slowing down precipitation formation processes by overseeding supercooled liquid water zones of precipitation-generating clouds, a technique of artificial modification of cloud systems over large cities has been created. It is intended for improving weather on days of mass political, sporting or cultural activities and for reducing precipitation on the territory of megapolises [75,76].

 

75.               Beriulev, G.P., Koloskov, B.P., Melnichuk, Yu.V., Chernikov, A.A., Korneyev, V.P., Diadiuchenko, V.N., Stasenko, V.N. Some results of aircraft activities in weather protection of large cities. Abstracts. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya po Physike Oblakov I Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy. Nalchik, 23-25 October 2001, p. 53-54 (in Russian).

76.               Beriulev, G.P., Koloskov, B.P., Melnichuk, Yu.V., Chernikov, A.A., Korneyev, V.P., Fedorov, O.K., Diadiuchenko, V.N., Stasenko, V.N. Weather protection of megapolises: Concept and results. Trudy Nauchnoy Conferentsii po Rezultatam Issledovaniy v Oblasti Gidrometeorologii I Monitoringa Zagriazneniya Prirodnoy Sredy v Gosudarstvakh Uchastnikach SNG, posviashchonnoy 10-letiyu Obrazovaniya Mezhgosudarstvennogo Soveta po Gidrometeorologii, St. Petersburg, 23-26 April 2002, Sektsiya 4, p.25-27 (in Russian).

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.      Instruments for cloud investigation

 

The instruments ACH&UVH (CAO) for air humidity measurements and IVO (CAO) for measurements of liquid water content have been recommended by experts of the European Fleet for Airborne Research to be employed on European research airplanes.

 

77.              Mezrin, M. Yu. "The contribution of different scales to integral moisture transport". EUFAR (European Fleet For Airborne Research) Conference, Small-Scale Turbulence Working Group. Capua, Italy, 16-20 of September 2002.

 

 

 

4.      Electrical cloud state

 

A two-dimensional numerical non-stationary model of thunderstorm cloud electrization was being constructed, which considered detailed microphysics comprising different elecrization mechanisms that include the interaction on collision between liquid-phase and solid-state particles as well as between solid particles (graupel ice crystals). Numerical experiments were fulfilled using the model. A laser technique to act upon thunderstorm clouds and control the effect has been developed. Optimal conditions for triggering a lightning discharge (discrimination of zones with the highest electric intensity) were determined based on the model concerned.

Fundamental studies have been carried out of the influence of non-stationary turbulent exchange and varying electric field on atmospheric electrical characteristics.

In the context of constructing an experimental physico-statistical model of a thunderstorm cloud, parameters characterizing the electrical state of convective clouds during the three phases of their evolution have been analyzed. The lightning frequency in zones of precipitation of different intensities was determined. The position of zones with increased reflectivity and turbulence values inside thunderstorm clouds relative to zones of lightning activity was established. Suggested is the structure of a thunderstorm location network, a version of its hardware and software. A feasibility study has been fulfilled for a variety of local thunderstorm location networks.

 

 

 

5. Artificial weather modification in fighting forest fires

A technique of extinguishing forest fires with artificially induced precipitation in the taiga and forest zone of the Russian Federation has been improved, which enabled a 20% reduction of aircraft fuel consumed during weather modification activities and increased the effectiveness of using agents by 20-30%. The technology permits assigning a lower class of fire risk to forests for fire prevention purposes and putting out fires with artificially induced precipitation. The most intensive precipitation to put out forest fires were induced using the technology concerned by the aircraft forest protection bases of Transbaikalia, Chita, and Syktyvkar areas in 1999-2002.

 

78.            Atabiev, M.D., Imamdjanov, A.A., Kalilov, B.A., Kozlov, V.N., Usmanov, I.U., Shchukin G.G. On carrying out weather protection activities in Tashkent on 21 March 2002. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), vyp. 4 (552), 2002, p.139-152 (in Russian).

79.            Efremenko, V.V., Pozhidayev, V.N., Kutuza, B.G., Zubkov, A.V., Moshkov, A.V., Obraztsov, S.P., Rybakov, Yu.P., Sobachkin, A.A., Evtushenko, A.V., Shchukin, G.G. Determionation of rain and clouds parameters using a radiometer complex, weather radar, and lidar. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya Distantsionnoye Zondirovanie Zemnykh Pokrovov I Atmosphery Aerokosmicheskimi Sredstvami, Murom, 2001 (in Russian).

80.            Galperin, S.M. On a combined use of lightning direction and range finders and weather radar. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), 2001, vyp. 3 (549), p.147-152 (in Russian).

81. Galperin, S.M., Mikhailovski, Yu.P., Stasenko, V.N., Frolov, V.I., Shchukin, G.G. Using the field experimental base of the Main Geophysical Observatory (p. Turgosh) for acting upon electric cloud state and control of the results . Abstracts. Trudy Nauchnoy Conferentsii po Rezultatam Issledovaniy v Oblasti Gidrometeorologii I Monitoringa Zagriazneniya Prirodnoy Sredy v Gosudarstvakh Uchastnikach SNG, posviashchonnoy 10-letiyu Obrazovaniya Mezhgosudarstvennogo Soveta po Gidrometeorologii, St. Petersburg, 23-26 April 2002, Sektsiya 4. Gidrometeoizdat, St.Petersburg , 2002 (in Russian).

82. Galperin, S.M., Morozov, V.N., Shchukin, G.G. On using laser to control thunderstorm activity. Abstracts. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya po Physike Oblakov I Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy. Nalchik, 23-25 October 2001, p. 53-54 (in Russian).

83. Galperin, S.M., Shchukin, G.G. Detection of energo-active zones in clouds by means of radio aids. Trudy NITz DZA, (GGO Branch), vyp. 3 (549), .123-131, 2001 (in Russian).

84. Geneotis, S.P., Pervushin, P.V., Shchukin, G.G. Comparative analysis of algorithms to detect zones of potential icing of flight vehicles by using active-passive radar techniques. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya Distantsionnoye Zondirovanie Zemnykh Pokrovov i Atmosphery Aerokosmicheskimi Sredstvami, Murom, 2001 (in Russian).

85. Klingo, V.V., Kozlov, V.N. On theoretical grounds for the application of ionogenic hygroscopic agents for inducing precipitation. Trudy NITZ DZA (GGO Branch), vyp. 3 (549), 2001, p.11-19 (in Russian).

86. Klingo, V.V., Kozlov, V.N. Using hygroscopic substances for artificial cloud and fog modification Trudy NITZ DZA (GGO Branch), vyp. 3 (549), 2001,.p. 49-65 (in Russian).

87.Klingo, V.V., Kozlov, V.N., Likhachev, A.V. A pyrotechnical methods of generating ionogenic hygroscopic aerosols. Trudy NITZ DZA (GGO Branch), vyp. 3 (549), 2001, p.251-256 (in Russian).

88. Klingo, V.V., Kozlov, V.N., Likhachev, A.V., Okunev, S.M., Shchukin, G.G. RD 52.04.628-2001. Guide. On the order of activitied to induce precipitation from convective clouds in fighting forest fires from board low-powered aircraft. Gidrometeoizdat, 2001, 24 p. (in Russian).

89. Klingo, V.V., Kozlov, V.N. Likhachev, A.V. Development of an ionogenic hygroscopic agent for artificial precipitation control. Abstracts. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya po Physike Oblakov I Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy. Nalchik, 23-25 October 2001, p.79-81 (in Russian).

90. Klingo, V.V., Kozlov, V.N., Likhachev, A.V. Studying the effect of ionogenic hygroscopic aerosol on phase water transformation in clouds. In the book: State-of-the art and prospects of the development of technology and technical aids to act upon hydrometeorological processes. Materialy Yubileinoy Conferentsii FGUP Cheboksarskoye PO im. B.I. Chapayeva, Cheboksary, 12-14 Aug. 1999, p.49-53 (in Russian).

91. Klingo, V.V., Kozlov, V.N. On electrical processes in clouds. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), vyp.4 (552), 2002, p.44-54 (in Russian).

92 Klingo, V.V., Kozlov, V.N. Physical basics of the formation of charged hygroscopic particles for artificial precipitation control. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), vyp.4 (552), 2002, p.76-86 (in Russian).

93. Kozlov, V.N., ShChukin, G.G. Development of a new technology for artificial precipitation control in fighting forest fires. Abstracts. Soveshchaniye-seminar po Resheniyu Lesopohzarhykh Problem. St. Petersburg, 2002 (in Russian).

94. Kozlov, V.N., Likhachev, A.V., Okunev, S.M. Aerosol-forming substances causing condensation and technical aids based on them. In the book: State-of-the art and prospects of the development of technology and technical aids to act upon hydrometeorological processes. Materialy Yubileinoy Conferentsii FGUP Cheboksarskoye PO im. B.I. Chapayeva, Cheboksary, 12-14 Aug. 1999, p.49-53 (in Russian).

95. Kozlov, V.N., Likhachev, A.V., Okunev, S.M. Artificial inducing of precipitation onto forest fires. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), vyp. 3 (549), 2001, p.239-249 (in Russian).

96. Kozlov, V.N., Likhachev, A.V. A pyrotechnic substance to modify atmospheric conditions. RF Patent No. 2179800, 2002 (in Russian).

97. Kozlov, V.N., Likhachev, A.V., Okunev, S.M. A method to control weather. RF Patent No. 2191499, 27 October 2002 (in Russian).

98. Kozlov, V.N., Likhachev, A.V. A pyrotechnic substance to modify weather. RF Patent No. 2181239, 20 April 2002 (in Russian).

99. Kozlov, V.N., Klingo V.V., Likhachev, A.V., Okunev, S.M., Shcherbakov, A.P., Shchukin, G.G. The order of carrying out activities in artificial inducing of precipitation from convective clouds in fighting forest fires from board low-powered aircraft. RD.52.04. 628-2001. St. Petersburg, Gidrometeoizdat, 2001 (in Russian).

100. Kozlov, V.N., Likhachev, A.V., Okunev, S.M., Shcherbakov, A.P. Fighting forest fires by artificially induced precipitation. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), vyp.4 (552), 2002, p.153-165 (in Russian).

101. Kupovykh, G.V., Morozov, V.N., Shvartz, Ya.M. The theory of an electrode effect in the atmosphere. Izd. TRGU, Taganrog, 1998, 122 p. (in Russian).

102. Mikhailovsky, Yu.P., Pachin, V.A. Modeling of electrically active convective clouds. Abstracts. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya po Physike Oblakov I Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy. Nalchik, 23-25 October 2001, p.99-101 (in Russian).

103. Morozov, V.N. Atmospheric aerosol layers as amplifiers of atmospheric electric field. In the book: Natural and anthropogenic aerosols (Transactions of International Conference 29.09-4.10.1997). St. Petersburg, 1998, p.137-141 (in Russian).

104. Morozov, V.N. On the effect of jumps of electric conductivity at the interface cloud free atmosphere on electric fields generated by cloud charge structures. In the book: Natural and anthropogenic aerosols (Transactions of the 2nd International Conference 27.09-1.10.1999). St. Petersburg, 2000, p.238-241 (in Russian).

105 Morozov, V.N. Distribution of the electric field produced by a stationary electric source in the atmosphere with inhomoheneous electric conductivity. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), 2000, vyp. 2 (548), p.11-23 (in Russian).

106. Morozov, B.N. The influence of inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric electric conductivity on the distribution of the electric field produced by time-dependent electric charge structure of the cloud. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), 2000, vyp. 3 (549), p.20-28 (in Russian).

107. Morozov, V.N. Calculation of the electrostatic fields of thunderstorm clouds necessary for triggering discharges cloud upper atmospheric layers. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), 2000, vyp. 3 (549), p. 34-48 (in Russian).

108. Morozov, V.N. Calculation of the electric fields of thunderstorm clouds for triggering electric discharges clouds upper atmospheric layers. Geomagnetism i Aeronomia, 2002, V.42, No. 1, p.121-129 (in Russian).

109. Morozov, V.N., Kupovykh, G.V. Non-stationary electrical processes in the surface atmospheric layer. Izv. VUZov. Severo-Kavkazsky Region. Estestvennyie Nauki No. 4, 2001, p.82-85 (in Russian).

110. Morozov, V.N., Shvartz, Ya.M., Shchukin, G.G. The global electric circuit: physico-mathematical modeling and regular changes in the lower atmosphere. Electric interaction of geospheric envelopes, p.55-67, M.O. IFZ RAN 2000, 209 p. (in Russian).

111. Morozov, V.N. On the problem of using laser to control thunderstorm cloud activity. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), 2002, vyp. 4 (550), p.20-29 (in Russian).

112. Morozov, V.N. On establishing a stationary electrical state in the atmosphere containing a lllayer of aerosol particles. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), 2002, vyp. 4 (550), p.37-45 (in Russian).

113. Morozov, V.N., Kupovykh, G.V., Kiovo, A.G. A non-stationary electrode effect in the atmosphere. Abstracts. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya po Physike Oblakov I Aktivnym Vozdeistviyam na Gidrometeorologicheskiye Protsessy. Nalchik, 23-25 October 2001, p.64-66 (in Russian).

114. Morozov, V.N., Snegurov, V.S., Shvartz, Ya. M. Investigation of atmospheric electricity. Recent Investigations of the Main Geophysical Observatory, 2001, V.2, p.203-228 (in Russian).

115. Pachin, V.A. A two-dimensional non-stationary numerical model of thunderstorm convective cloud electrization. Trudy NITz DZA (GGO Branch), 2002, vyp. 4 (550), p.30-36 (in Russian).

116. Shchukin, G.G. Radio-thermal-radar techniques to study atmospheric moisture content. Zarubezhnaya Radioelektronika. Uspekhi Sovremennoy Radioelektroniki, No 11, 2001 (in Russian).

117. Shchukin, G.G., Galperin, S.M. Radar investigation of thunderstorm clouds and lightning channels. TEKO-2000. China, Beijing, 23-27.10.2000 (in Russian).

118. Shchukin, G.G., Stasenko, V.N. Methodology of investigating electricity of thunderstorm clouds and precipitation. Trudy NITz DZA, 2000, vyp.2 (548) (in Russian).

119. Shchukin, G.G., Stasenko, V.N. Complex active-passive radar sounding of clouds. Vserossiyskaya Conferentsiya Distantzionnoye zondirovaniye zemnykh pokrovov I atmosphery aerokosmicheskimi sredstvami. Murom, 2001 (in Russian).

120. Galperin S., Karavaev D., Stasenko V., Shchukin G.G. Active-passive radar system for control of thundercloud modification. Seventh WMO Scientific onference on Weather Modification. Chiang Mai, Thailand (17-22 February 1999).WMO/TD No 936, Preprints Volume II Secretariat of WMO Geneva, Switzerland

121. Klingo V.V., Kozlov V.N., Stasenko V.N., Shchukin G.G. Atmospheric resources control by the use of ionogeneous, hygroscopic reagent. Seventh WMO Scientific Conference on Weather Modification. Chiang Mai, Thailand (17-22 February 1999). WMO/TD No 936, Preprints Volume II Secretariat of WMO Geneva, Switzerland

122. Morozov V.N. Calculation of Electric Field strength necessary for altitude discharge above thunderstorms. In 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity. Proceeding of Conference held in Guntersville, Alabama, June 7-11, 1999, USA, p.69-71.

 


 

 

 

PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

 

O.I. Korablev

 

Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences,

Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 117997, Russia (korab@iki.rssi.ru)

 

 

1.Venus.

 

1.1. Comprehensive treatment of data measured by the IR Fourier-spectrometry onboard Venera-15 has resulted in 3D zonal mean velocity field in the thermal wind approximation versus latitude, height, and solar longitude. Three jets are revealed in the thermal wind field.

 

In most of observational sessions, the midlatitude jet was observed at the altitude of 65-70 km, with thermal gradients being provided by the cold collar. High-altitude tropical jet at the altitude of 81 km is associated with the thermal inversion at 90-95 km. Another tropical jet is observed at the altitude of 68 km, near the upper boundary of the cloud deck.

 

Based on 3D fields of the zonal thermal wind retrieved during the revision of the IR spectrometric data onboard Venera-15, latitudinal profiles have been built for the wind speed in location corresponding to the maximum of the midlatitude jet on both day and night side of Venus (about 70 km). Those profiles were employed in simulations of the barotropic instability that revealed period of 3-4 terrestrial days and exponential growth time scale less than 20 days. Daytime profiles are dominated by harmonics with n=3, whereas nighttime ones with n=2. This fact may argue in favor of the presence of the barotropic instability in the middle Venus atmosphere in altitude range about 70 km.

 

A search for tidal waves in zonal average temperature field and cloud opacities has been carried out. A tidal origin of the zonal superrotation drive is one of the modern hypotheses explaining the nature of Venus atmospheric dynamics. Tide is generated as a result of solar energy absorption, about 50% of which is taking place in the middle atmosphere within a narrow layer at 58-70 km. Thermal and aerosol 3D fields in the coordinates latitude-height-solar longitude (for Venus, the latter is also a measure of the local time), retrieved from the Fourier spectrometry onboard Venera-15, have been investigated for the presence of sun-synchronous waves. In low latitudes the amplitude of the diurnal thermal tide maximizes above 0.2 mbar (92 km) where diurnal tide is dominating. In high latitudes, the diurnal tide dominates below 50 mbar (68 km): its amplitude is twice as high as the amplitude of the semidiurnal tide, reaching the maximal value of 18 K at 57 km altitude in the cold collar. In low latitudes, semidiurnal tide dominates below 90 km, reaching maximum at 83 km, and also in the upper cloud layer above 58 km. At 70-76 km the third diurnal harmonics is dominating. In the upper cloud layer where most of the solar energy is absorbed, all four harmonics, including diurnal and 1/3-diurnal ones, have amplitudes exceeding 3K in their maxima. Zonally averaged altitude of the upper boundary of the cloud deck varies from 69 km in low latitudes to 59 km in the cold collar, with the diurnal component reaching maximum equal to 1.5 km in the cold collar. In the low latitudes, both diurnal and semidiurnal components amplitudes are 0.8-1 km. The areas characterized by strongest tidal activity correlate with jet streams located independently in thermal wind fields.

 

1.2.A technique has been developed for radiative transfer calculation in the lower Venus atmosphere based the model of spectral line profile in the far wing approximation in the case when the contribution from line wings is not a small value. Calculations show that in the lower Venus atmosphere incoming solar and outgoing infrared fluxes are not balanced, implying a substantial contribution of the atmospheric dynamics to vertical heat transfer.

A hypothesis was investigated if the turbulence is capable of transferring energy absorbed in the cloud deck to lower atmospheric layers. Such a mechanism may explain some disagreement between solar and infrared fluxes. On the other hand, this mechanism may in principle provide a backward energy transport of heat from the lower cloud layers warmed by upward infrared radiation into the undercloud atmosphere.

 

 

 

Ignat'ev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I.; Zasova, L. V.; Khatuntsev, I. V. Water Vapor in the Middle Atmosphere of Venus from the Data of the Venera-15 IR Fourier Spectrometer Astronomicheskii Vestnik1999, vol. 33, p. 1.

Ignatiev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I.; Zasova, L. V.; Khatuntsev, I. V. Venera 15: Water vapour in the middle atmosphere of Venus Advances in Space Research 1999, Volume 23, Issue 9, p. 1549-1558.

Zasova, L. V.; Khatountsev, I. A.; Moroz, V. I.; Ignatiev, N. I. Structure of the Venus middle atmosphere: Venera 15 fourier spectrometry data revisited. Advances in Space Research 1999, Volume 23, Issue 9, p. 1559-1568.

Zasova, L. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I.; Khatuntsev, I. V. Venera-15: Water Vapor at Altitudes of 55-65 km. Cosmic Research, 1999, Vol. 37, No. 1, p.10

Zasova, L. V.; Linkin, V. M.; Khatuntsev, I. V. Zonal Wind in the Middle Atmosphere of Venus. Cosmic Research, 2000, Vol. 38, No. 1, p.49

Izakov M.N. Turbulence and anomalous heat flux in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Planet. Space Sci., 2001, 49, 47-58

Zasova, L.; Khatountsev, I. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I. Local time variations of the middle atmosphere of Venus: Solar-related structures. Advances in Space Research, 2002, Volume 29, Issue 2, p. 243-248.

Izakov, M. N. Turbulence and anomalous heat fluxes in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Planetary and Space Science 2001, Volume 49, Issue 1, p. 47-58.

Izakov, M. N. A Possible Mechanism of Superrotation of the Atmosphere of Venus. Solar System Research, v. 35, Issue 4, p. 249-260 (2001).

Izakov, M. N. Turbulent Heat Fluxes in the Atmosphere of Venus. Solar System Research, v. 36, Issue 3, p. 193-205 (2002).

Izakov, M. N. Convective Zones in the Atmosphere of Venus and the Anomalous Heat Flux (in Response to Criticism) Solar System Research, v. 36, Issue 6, p. 495-498 (2002). Moroz, V. I.; Rodin, A. V. How Many Convective Zones Are There in the Atmosphere of Venus? Solar System Research, v. 36, Issue 6, p. 492-494 (2002).



2. Mars

 

2.1.Based on daytime sky brightness distribution in different wavelengths from camera measurements of Pathfinder spacecraft, aerosol parameters in the atmosphere of Mars have been retrieved. Observations of scattered light brightness distribution resulted in microstructural parameters of the atmospheric aerosol: the effective particle size reff=1.71 (+0.29/-0.26) um and typical dispersion of size distribution n=0.25 (+0.05/-0.1) . Imaginary part of the refractive index varies from 0.015 in the UV to 0.003 in the visible and near-infrared range. Observations have confirmed that aerosol particles in the Martian atmosphere are not spherical. Sky brightness distribution was measured by Pathfinder camera in five filters at 443.6, 481.0, 670.8, 896.1 965.3 um during six observational sessions. To the moment, one session has been completely processed Aerosol properties above Pathfinder landing site are close to those retrieved from similar observations of Viking landers. Pathfinder measurements argue that particles shape is oblate, which is typical for highly weathered rocks (clays). Despite the one-mode model used in the analysis, data imply possibility of the presence of a fine submicron mode of aerosol particles.

 

2.2 A revision of data retrieved from the experiment MAWD onboard Viking spacecraft has been carried out in order to eliminate disagreement between earlier published results of this experiment with recent observations, e.g. from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, and numerical simulations. It is shown that in the perihelion season, when dust amounts in the martian atmosphere maximizes, MAWD spectra may have been significantly affected by aerosol scattering. The technique eveloped for the retrievals of water vapor accounting for aerosol scattering has resulted in quantities that agree with other experiments.

2.3 Thermal structure of the Martian atmosphere was studied based on Fourier-spectrometry data measured by IRIS instrument onboard Mariner-9 spacecraft. Studies showed thermal inversion in the near-surface layer between 13h and 18h local time during the summer season. The inversion reaches 27 K after 17h at the North slope of Arsia Mons. Temperature and aerosol profiles have been retrieved from each spectrum in a self-consistent way. Aerosol opacity varies in time from mean value of 0.45 to 0.15 at 1000 cm-1 within time interval between Ls = 314 and 348. Thermal inertia of the Tharsis surface is 10-15 times lower than in lowland areas, resulting in quick surface cooling as compared to more inertial atmosphere.

 

Quantitative data on cooling rates in the aphelion season versus perihelion season have been obtained. Data are consistent with the presence of condensational clouds below 20 km altitude.

 

Temperature profiles have been retrieved for the winter North polar atmosphere (f >65N). Fogs composed of particles of about 1 mm size with opacity t=0.1-1 are present near the surface with the scale height of 1-2 km. CO2 condensational clouds may exist at latitudes > 80N at 10-25 km height or in the near-surface layer. The continuum spectrum in all polar observations is well approximated by a model of the near-surface fog composed of water ice with t=0.1-1, particle sizes about 1 mm, and water column abundance 1-10 pr. mm.

 

Water vapor abundance retrieved from IR spectra in 20-50 mm covering mostly the Southern hemisphere has been studied, including its seasonal, diurnal, and latitudinal variability. The results mainly confirm generally accepted views on the behavior of water vapor in that season (Ls = 290350): net abundance is about 10 pr. mm with the maximum in midlatitudes.

 

The confidence studies on the interpretation of Mars polarimetry data received during high atmosphric transparency show high sensitivity of this method to properties of the surface as well as to the presence of clouds, along with optical properties of dust. Using the scattering model taking into account nonsphericity of dust particles, the impact of various factors on polarimetry data interpretation results has been studied. Simulations confirm that water ice clouds may introduce a substantial uncertainty to this interpretation. In addition, the presence of fine particles, both icy and dusty, in the upper atmospheric layers, may mask larger particles suspended in lower layers. The impact of particles shape on the polarization curve implies that interesting information on aerosol properties may be retrieved from observatons taken at small phase angle.

 

2.4 Self-consistent model of water ice clouds that involves microphysics, transport and radiation transfer, was developed and adapted to the general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere SKYHI. The Martian version of SKYHI GCM has been developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (Princeton) by R.J.Wilson. For the first time in the GCM practice a realistic microphysics rather than empirical parameterization has been implemented for cloud modeling that was made possible due to moment representation of ice particles size distribution. Numerical experiments gave basic climate characteristics of Mars in the aphelion season (North hemisphere summer), consistent with available ground-based and spacecraft observations. Simulations show that in this season in the latitude interval 0-30Nthe tropical cloud system is developed that constrains the meridional transport of dust main absorbing agent in the lower atmosphere and alters its optical parameters, resulting in stabilization of climate at relatively low temperatures. This picture is distinctly different from th perihelion season, when dust loading in the atmosphere increases (t~1) and dust storms of various scales sporadically appear. The tropical cloud system is developed due to both 40% decrease of the solar flux and intense sublimation of the North polar cap exposed by polar day conditions. At Ls 143the tropical cloud system decays and polar cloud hoods are formed, with simultaneous quick (3-10 days) expansion of dust to high latitudes of both hemispheres and global midlatitude warming by 5-10 K. This period is also characterized by excitation of a broad spectrum of planetary-scale waves and chaotic behavior of local pressure and temperature fields. Other seasonally determined circulation reconfigurations connected with change of planetary waves zonal structure are also identified, accompanied with generation of short-living transient waves. Periodicity and wave structure of these transients is consistent with observations. They are coinciding with large scale seasonal climate change, such as appearance and decay of the tropical cloud belt and generation of global dust storms on Mars.

 

 

Formisano, V.; Grassi, D.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Zasova, L. IRIS Mariner 9 data revisited: water and dust daily cycles. Planetary and Space Science, 2001,Volume 49, Issue 13, p. 1331-1346.

Zasova L., Drassi D, Formisano V., Maturilli A. Martian atmosphere in the region of Great volcanoes: Mariner 9 IRIS data revisited. Planetary and Space Sciences 2001, Volume 49, Issue 9, p. 977-992.

Markiewicz W.J., R. Sablotny, H.U. Keller, N. Thomas, D. Titov and P. Smith. Optical properties of the Martian aerosols as derived from Imager for Mars Pathfinder midday sky brightness data. J. Geophys. Res., 104, No.E4, 9009-9017, 1999.

Richardson, M.I., R.J.Wilson, and A.V.Rodin. Water ice clouds in the Martian atmosphere: General circulaton model experiments with a simple cloud scheme. J.Geophys. Res., 107(E9), 10.1029/2001JE001804 , 2002.

N. I. Ignatiev, L. V. Zasova, V. Formisano, D. Grassi, and A. Maturilli, Water vapour abundance in Martian atmosphere from revised Mariner 9 IRIS data. Adv. Space Res., 2002, Volume 29, Issue 2, p. 157-162. 2002

Zasova, L.; Formisano, V.; Grassi, D.; Ignatiev, N.; Maturilli, A. Martian winter atmosphere at north high latitudes: Mariner 9 IRIS data revisited. Advances in Space Research 2002, Volume 29, Issue 2, p. 151-156.

Fedorova .. , A.V. Rodin, I. Baklanova, "Mars atmospheric water vapor in the Southern hemishere: MAWD revisited" Advances of Space Research, in press.
Dlugach, Zh. M.; Korablev, O. I.; Morozhenko, A. V.; Moroz, V. I.; Petrova, E. V.; Rodin, A. V. Physical Properties of Dust in the Martian Atmosphere: Analysis of Contradictions and Possible Ways of Their Resolution. Solar System Research, v. 37, Issue 1, p. 1-19 (2003).
Dlugach, Zh. M.; Petrova, E. V. Polarimetry of Mars in High-Transparency Periods: How Reliable Are the Estimates of Aerosol Optical Properties? Solar System Research, v. 37, Issue 2,

p.87-100.(2003).
Petrova, E. V. Optical Thickness and Shape of Dust Particles of the Martian Aerosol Astronomicheskii Vestnik, vol. 33, p. 260 (1999)

 

 

 

3. Cometary atmospheres

 

By means of numerical simulations, it has been shown that observed intensity and polarization phase curves of comets may be explained by the aggregate structure of cometary dust particles. Interpretation of photometric and polarimetric observations of various Solar System objects is often challenged by necessity to account for shape and structure of particles that compose atmospheric aerosol, regolith and cometary dust. Since in many cases particles of natural origin have aggregate structure, scattering properties of aggregate particles (clusters) comparable in size with visible wavelength have been studied by theoretical and numerical techniques. Calculations suggest that sizes of monomers composing clusters significantly affect phase functions of intensity and linear polarization.

Bonev, T.; Jockers, K.; Petrova, E.; Delva, M.; Borisov, G.; Ivanova, A. The Dust in Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) during Its Disintegration: Narrow-Band Images, Color Maps, and Dynamical Models. Icarus, Volume 160, Issue 2, p. 419-436.

Kiselev, N. N.; Rosenbush, V. K.; Petrova, E. V.; Jockers, K. Asteroids and comets : a comparison of polarization properties. in Memorie della Societa' Astronomica Italiana, vol. 73, no. 3, p. 703 (2002)

Petrova, E.V., Jockers, K., Kiselev, N.N. A Negative Branch of Polarization for Comets and Atmosphereless Celestial Bodies and the Light Scattering by Aggregate Particles Solar System Research, v. 35, Issue 5, p. 390-399 (2001).

Petrova, E. V.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Keller, H. U.Regolith Surface Reflectance: A New Attempt to Model. Solar System Research, v. 35, Issue 4, p. 278-290 (2001).

Petrova, E.V.; Jockers, K.; Kiselev, N. N. Light Scattering by Aggregate Particles Comparable in Size to Wavelength: Application to Cometary Dust. Solar System Research, v. 35, Issue 1, p. 57-69 (2001).

Petrova, E.V.; Jockers, K.; Kiselev, N.N. Light Scattering by Aggregates with Sizes Comparable to the Wavelength: An Application to Cometary Dust

Icarus, Volume 148, Issue 2, pp. 526-536 (2000).

 

 

 

4. Microphysics of clouds in planetary atmospheres

 

An effective numerical method of simulation of microphysical processes in aerosols and clouds has been developed and implemented in several models. The method deals with few lower moments of particles size distribution. A considerable performance achieved by this technique allows do avoid unphysical parameterization and makes it suitable for self-consistent microphysical calculations in general circulation models of planetary atmosphere with the lack of empirical data.

 

Rodin, A.V. On the Moment Method for the Modeling of Cloud Microphysics in Rarefied Turbulent Atmospheres: I. Condensation and Mixing. Solar System Research, v. 36, 2, p. 97-106 (2002).

Rodin, A.V. On the Moment Method for the Modeling of Cloud Microphysics in Rarefied Turbulent Atmospheres: II. Stochastic coagulation. Solar System Research, in press (2003).

 

 

 

5. Development of instruments and methods for space research

 

5.1. A lightweight near-IR spectrometer based on the acousto-optical tuneable filter (AOTF), has been designed and installed onboard Mars Express spacecraft as a part of SPICAM package. The spectrometer that has no moving parts is aimed at measurements of water vapor abundance in the atmosphere of Mars in nadir observations and solar occultations. In addition, the instrument allows to study properties of the surface and atmospheric aerosol by means of spectropolarimetry in spectral range 1.0-1.7 mm. Net mass of the instrument is 800 g. The spectrometer has been calibrated, observation techniques have been elaborated. Similar spectrometer with extended spectral range and enhanced sensitivity is under development of Venus Express mission.

 

 

5.2 A prototype of compact high-resolution spectrometer for spacecraft observations of planetary atmospheres by solar occultation technique has been developed and designed. The instrument that includes echelle spectrometer and the AOTF for preliminary diffraction order selection is capable of resolving power as high as l/Dl=25000-30000 in solar occultation, with its size and mass being rather small. High performance of the instrument has been confirmed by laboratory tests. An implementation of this spectrometer is developed for Venus atmosphere studies in the framework of Venus Express mission.

 

5.3. A new method has been proposed for the remote sounding of Martian aerosol based on reflected radiaton measurement in the saturated 2.7 mm CO2 band from an orbiter. First opportunity to implement this technique was granted due to data received by shortwave spectrometer SWS onboard ISO satellite (Infrared Space Observatory). This technique resulted in the retrieval of aerosol net opacity t = 0.350.13, evaluation of aerosol scale height = 102 , and also in spectral behavior of aerosol optical parameters, that suggested the presence of dust absorption band near 2.8 mm. Good agreement with observations provide such minerals as montmorillonite and smectite, although palagonite also gives proper approximation. Opacity data are consistent with simultaneous observations from pathfinder spacecraft and Hubble Space Telescope.

 

D.V. Titov, A.A. Fedorova, and R. Haus. A new method of remote sounding of the Martian aerosols by means of spectroscopy in the 2.7 mm CO2 band. Planetary and Space Science 48, 67-74, 2000.

Korablev O.I., Bertaux J.-L., Vinogradov I.I. Compact high-resolution IR spectrometer for atmospheric studies. Proc. SPIE, 2002, V.4818, 272-281

Bertaux, J.L. et al.The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM Light on Mars Express. Planetary and Space Science, 2000. V.48. P.1303-1320.

Korablev O., Bertaux J.-L., Grigoriev A., Dimarellis E., Kalinnikov Yu., Rodin A., Muller C., Fonteyn D. An AOTF-based spectrometer for the studies of Mars atmosphere for Mars Express ESA mission. Adv. Space Res. 2002. V.29. N2. P.143-150.

Korablev O.I., Bertaux J.-L., Dimarellis E., Grigoriev A., Kalinnikov Yu., Stepanov A., Guibert, S. AOTF-based spectrometer for Mars atmosphere sounding Proc. SPIE 2002, V.4818. P.261-271.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POLAR METEOROLOGY

 

A.I. Danilov and V.E. Lagun

 

Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute,

38 Bering Str., St. Petersburg 199397, Russia (aid@aari.nw.ru; lagun@aari.nw.ru)

 

 

1. Arctic climate

 

Evidence of warming process in Arctic during last two decades provides prominent interest to quantitative description of regional climate signal on the base of available current, historical and reconstructed data /1-5/, and numerical modeling results also /14,15,17/. There are two prominent periods of warming in Northern Polar area during 20th century (1918-1938 and 1969-2000) and two periods of cooling (1901-1918 and 1939-1968). Generally, there are three significant climatic stages which can be distinguished in observed trends of thermal regime in Arctic during 20th century: before 1920s, 1920-1960s, and 1980-90s.

Joint analysis of hydrological regime parameters of Arctic Ocean and of global atmosphere circulation characteristics demonstrated that the first warming can be connected with intensification of thermohaline circulation in Atlantic sector of Arctic Ocean, and the second one can be caused by intensification of large - scale meridional energy exchange in troposphere. The creation of high quality data sets, which can be used for revealing of climate variability physical reasons and for forecasting of climate change /6, 10/ is an actual scientific problem.

The empirical and modeling estimations of Arctic atmosphere structure reaction for increasing of radiative active gases and aerosol concentrations are executed. The estimates of climate change obtained on the base of completed data sets demonstrate the stable tendency of Arctic warming started in 1960s, but decreasing of warming intensity in both polar areas is observed. The history of warming in Arctic for periods of 1930s and 1990s is considered. Mean annual surface air temperature over all Arctic region is increased about 0.50 during last period of warming, this value is less than temperature increase observed during Arctic warming in 1930s and it is close to increase of Northern Hemisphere averaged temperature. Since 1993 the positive anomalies of mean annual surface air temperature trend take place with more prominent anomalies registered in 1995 and in 2002. In 2002 the largest anomaly (2.9 σ) was observed in summer, the temperature of Arctic troposphere was increased up to 400 hPa level, and above it and in stratosphere the temperature was decreased with increasing of vertical temperature gradient through all the atmosphere. The results of investigations are the input into the realization of climatic projects of (World Climate Research Program (WCRP), including the polar regions into the sphere of interests (ACSYS, CliC).

In Main Geophysical Observatory (MGO) the investigations of polar climate were executed on the base of modeling of High latitudes climate and its changes with help of Global Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models AOGCMs /14-26/. The main results are the analysis of systematic errors of atmosphere models and AOGCM in calculations of modern climate, the comparative analysis of estimations of possible polar climate changes in 21th century on the base of calculations with ensemble of AOGCM using external forcing as the latest scenarios of IPCC greenhouse gases and aerosol SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios). Moreover, the Arctic data archive was completed by the data rows from meteorological stations in Alaska with daily resolution and by fully corrected precipitation data /27/. The new version of AOGCM MGO (MGOCM2 T30L14/L33) is used for investigations of natural and anthropogenic polar climate variability in frames of international projects MIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project), CMIP (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project ) and ACIA (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment) /18,19/.

The field measurements of greenhouse gases concentrations (CO2 and methane) were executed in Northern part of West Siberia, in the area of largest in the world natural gas fields and vast wetlands /28-35/. The estimations of integral input from local natural (natural complexes of marshes) and anthropogenic (gas extraction and transportation objects) into global atmospheric methane budget are obtained which are equal to 10 Mt/year and 2.5 Mt/year respectively /28-30/.

The regional transport model describing the distribution of methane in troposphere was developed /28-29/. The air sampling on Arctic coastal area /34/ and in Northern Pole were organized.

Synoptic processes dynamics over all Arctic Sea was developed /7-9, 11, 13/.

 

 

2. Antarctic climate

 

A quantitative study of the mechanisms of formation of the climatic variability in the Antarctic requires the reliable information about the statistical structure of the fields of meteorological parameters. Such study has became possible in relation to creating a database of climate of Antarctica /38/ in the framework of the geo-information system (GIS) The Antarctic developed at the AARI /44/. This database is intended for numerical analysis of Southern Polar area environment based on available data for all period of observations / 38,56,59,64 /.

Manifestation of the so-called global warming in the Southern Hemisphere is most clearly recorded in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula both in the surface layer /37, 39, 41/ and in the free atmosphere /40, 41, 42/. The results of the probabilistic analysis of time series of surface air temperature and air pressure at sea level in this region were used for determining of the interannual variability characteristics obtained by the modulation of annual cycle over the range of interannual and seasonal changes of synoptic scale variability.

The variability from day-to-day and within a year makes the main contribution to the total dispersion, while for temperature, the variability within a year accounts for more than 50% of dispersion, it is less than 20% for pressure /46/. The contribution of the variability of annual averages to the total dispersion comprises less than 5%. However, the interannual variability is described not only by the changes of annual averages. The contribution of daily variations and variability within a day to the total dispersion is also small, for temperature as well as for pressure it is less than 10% of dispersion. However, it is also advisable to consider the variability features over the low-frequency ranges relative to daily variations taking into account the time of the day. This can be useful, for example, for formulation of hypotheses about the nature of the interannual variability trends /39, 46, 58/.

The interannual variability contains additive and modulation components /46/. The additive component is presented by a sequence of annual averages while the modulation component is manifested through the interannual variability of parameters of the annual variations and in the interannual variations of the synoptic variability characteristics.

In the troposphere of East Antarctica, no statistically significant climatic changes in the temperature field were detected, but in Central Antarctic part a small cooling was found /53/.

The tendency for the tropospheric warming above the Antarctic Peninsula is in agreement with the change of the Antarctic Oscillation index (Southern Hemisphere annular mode) /40, 42/.

The coincidence of the tendencies of the interannual variability of the dynamic ntarctic Oscillation and the thermal regime parameters of the atmosphere above the Antarctic Peninsula indicate that the pronounced regional warming can be related to the prevailing changes in the circulation conditions in the Southern Hemisphere /42/.

Increasing of macro-scale circulation meridional form frequency during last two decades is due to systematic inflow of warm tropospheric air masses coming from the North to Antarctic Peninsula area. The possible influence of oceanic forcing on surface warming formation over Antarctic Peninsula is the Antarctic circumpolar current consumption change due to systematic inflow warm intermediate water masses into Bellingshausen Sea shelf /37/.

The climatic regime of the free atmosphere of the Southern Polar Area is characterized by some specific features as compared with the state of the troposphere and the stratosphere of other climatic zones. These features include powerful spring stratospheric warming events, a unique dynamic regime of a strong circumpolar vortex, maximum resources of available potential energy of Earth, special conditions of the radiation energy exchange and physical-chemical transformations in the atmosphere. Significant experience of upper-air sounding at the Russian (Soviet) Antarctic stations has been presently summarized in the meteorological block of the geo-information system (GIS) The Antarctic, which is intended for a numerical analysis of the environmental state of the Southern Polar Area based on available observation data over the period of instrumental measurements.

For quantitative explanation of the seasonal air temperature variations in the stratosphere, especially the formation of strong summer inversion, it is necessary to assess a relative contribution of radiation heating, dynamic factors and the ozone genesis processes. This has become possible in recent years due to construction of three-dimensional models of the general atmospheric circulation with interactive description of photochemical processes /31,51/.

Comprehensive data set for methane content in Antarctic atmosphere is developed /52/, natural methane sources (ornitogenic soil) on sub-Antarctic islands near Antarctic Peninsula were found.

Handbooks for meteorological forecasting in Antarctica was prepared /50/.

Cyclonic and meso-cyclonic eddies parameters for both polar areas atmosphere are calculated /47,48,49,57/ based on reanalysis and satellite data.

 

 

3. Geophysical and meteorological processes

 

Database of geophysical, aerological and meteorological observations in the Antarctica for 1980-1991 and measurements of the atmospheric electric field at Vostok station for 1998-2002 have been used to study structure and dynamics of geophysics processes in the Southern polar cap and their influence on atmospheric processes. The following main results have been obtained in 1999-2002.

1) Relationship between index of magnetic activity in the southern polar cap (PCS index)and interplanetary and ionospheric electric field has been examined. The quadratic dependence of the polar cap electric field on the PC-index has been derived. It has been sown that abrupt increase of the PC index undoubtedly indicates development of the magnetospheric substorm. These circumstances make it possible to regard the PC index as one of the most reliable and accessible indicators of state of the magnetosphere. At present the PCS index is calculated on the basis of magnetic data from Vostok station and published online at the AARI web-site (http://www.aari.nw.ru).

2) Measurements of the atmospheric, near-surface vertical electric field Ez were started at the Russian Antarctic station Vostok (j = 7827S, l = 10652E) in 1998. The unique archives of data has been obtained since the fair weather conditions (that is absence of high winds, falling or drifting snow, clouds, and electric field pollution from the stations power plant) are fulfilled at Vostok in 78% of days in year. It was shown that the average diurnal variation of Ez for these days follows the global geoelectric field fair-weather diurnal variation: the Carnegie curve, which describes the global electric circuit formed by the thunderstorm activity occurring mostly over equatorial regions. The Ez diurnal variation shows strong seasonal dependence: it is maximum (~40 % of the average daily magnitude) in summer, but gradually reduces through the equinoctial months and is minimum during the austral winter. Variations of the electric field have been analyzed in conjunction with changes of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Ez field at Vostok is strongly affected by variations in both the IMF By and Bz components. The influence of By is dominant during geomagnetic daytime hours (1100-1400 UT at Vostok): Ez increases with By in the range 10 nT to +10 nT. The IMF Bz effect is mainly seen at dawn (Ez increases with negative Bz ) and dusk (Ez increases with positive Bz).

To reveal effects of the thunderstorm lightning flashes on the global electric circuit the behavior of the Ez field at Vostok station is compared with thunderstorm occurrence determined with an accuracy of microseconds from spacecraft measurements in April 1998 and with simultaneous VLF emission measurements at Halley staton (Antarctica) (http://